Akten des XII. Internationalen Germanistenkongresses Warschau 2010 - Vielheit und Einheit der Germanistik weltweit. Hrsg. von Franciszek Grucza
A lot of dictionaries of youth jargon (traditionally called youth slang) were published in Germany over the period from 2000 to 2013. They fall into three categories. The first group are annual editions of multilingual dictionaries by PONS and Langenscheidt publishers which give words and collocations used by schoolchildren from Germany, Austria and Switzerland their English, French and Spanish equivalents. These dictionaries, containing from 300 to 1500 words, focus on new entries and generally lack lexicographical information. It is native speakers, who contribute to the new editions by sending words and collocations to editors. These terms are included without any restrictions and this fact is mentioned in the preface to the dictionary. The second group are dictionaries ("Wörterbuch der Szenesprachen" and "Das neue Wörterbuch der Szenesprachen" from Duden publisher edited by P. Vipperman) organized by topic. They contain words referring to music, popular culture, love and sex, computers and Internet, entertainment and fashion etc. Each topic provides a specific vocabulary used by youth groups who share the same interests and have a similar lifestyle. These lexicographical sources feature thorough word definitions with detailed interpretation of jargonisms, normally in the context, but they do not give any information on grammar and language style, histories of words or verifiable reference. There is usually a website for a topical dictionary and anyone can participate in compiling it. The third group are lexicons by G. Eman who put them together after many years of close contact with young people of different age groups and social classes. Their strong points are complete definitions of entries. He also specifies stylistic register, polysemy, dialect, etymology, though sometimes his explanations lack system. All words and expressions are given in the context. G. Eman also provides synonymous sequences, arranged by topic which could be found in the appendix to "Endgale" dictionary. None of the reviewed dictionaries meets all standards for lexicographical reference. However, despite this shortcoming and diverse lexicographical aspects, dictionaries of German youth language published in the early 21st century are a valuable source for studying this layer of unconventional vocabulary and therefore youth subculture. It should be pointed out that German youth slang is not about specific words and expressions only, it reflects social relations, way of life and culture of young people from Germany, Austria and Switzerland.
The article presents a review of major lexicographic sources in XVIII-XIX centuries from R. Salmasius to F. Kluge featuring slang spoken by German students. It provides a comparative analysis of three lexicons published in XVIII century and sixteen XIX century dictionaries according to main lexicographic parameters with the focus on definitions of entries. They are mostly incomplete, since they lack grammatical and stylistic characteristics, historical and etymological references, examples, verifiable data sources. The common feature of all analysed lexicons is their either brief or comprehensive definitions of entries. Some dictionaries point out a number of meanings, some focus on synonyms of slang words, others give examples of usage. Verifiable data sources can be found only in “Deutsche Studentensprache” (German Students` Language) written by F. Kluge. Incomplete definitions and incoherent systematization of entries is attributed to the fact that most lexicons of that time weren`t compiled by linguists, but by students who wanted to share their experience with future generations and they usually said so in the preface to the dictionary. The analysis of dictionary entries makes it possible to identify lexical and semantic changes that have been taking place over the past two centuries. The study of student slang words in XVIII-XIX centuries has revealed that some of them can be found only in one lexicon, while others have been included in later editions because of their significance in students` life. Though different in scope and content, all analysed dictionaries, considered collectively or separately, are essential in studying the evolution of German students` language which in its turn ensures better understanding of current trends in modern youth slang. Moreover, definitions provide a glimpse into a students` life in the past, enabling us to learn more about culture, lifestyle and preoccupations of German speaking students and this is what makes this study very important since it touches upon linguistic and sociological issues.
HiGeWiS-Tagung „Geschichte der Fach- und Wissenschaftssprachen. Identität, Differenz, Transfer“: Book of Abstracts
The article deals with the reflection of the feminist linguistic tendencies in the contemporary German language. It describes the ways of avoiding gender asymmetry thus promoting men’s and women’s equality of rights not only in the society but also in the language. The most wide-spread methods are the explicit naming of both genders (full and contracted), as well as the use of neutral forms, acting as substitutes (substantivized participles and adjectives in the Plural, compound words, abstract nouns). All the periodicals showed the considerable increase in the use of feminine gender nouns denoting the professions which were formerly considered as mainly masculine ones. These nouns are basically formed by adding of the suffix -in (Kanzlerin, Ministerin) and the semi-suffix -frau (Kauffrau, Zeitungsfrau). The article also examines the guidelines offered by the dictionaries of Duden publishing house on how to use the non-sexist forms in the normative German language. The research was done as exemplified in the German-language magazines (political, scientific, feminist) published in Germany from 2003 to 2013. The findings demonstrated the inconsistent use of non-sexist forms over the last decade; moreover, the Duden Dictionary guidelines were often ignored. It is explained by the negligent attitude of the authors and editors to the requirements of the feminist linguistics.
The research examines relationship of language and culture, emphasizes bilateral character between language and culture. By the development of Alsatian local culture and Alsatian dialect, language analyzed as a marker of identity of local culture, which participates in inter-ethnic and intercultural interaction.
The paper sums up the results of the comparative analysis of youth slang words in Slavic, Germanic and Romance languages, the language data are taken from Russian, German and French youth´s speech with several examples from English and Spanish. There are defined some common features in vocabulary enrichment (word-building, metaphorization, borrowing) and functioning of these phenomena. The conclusions are illustrated with concrete examples from lexicographical sources of the 21st century.
The article dealts with German school and student sociolects of the first half of the XXth century. The data under linguistic analysis are lexicographic sources and theoretical articles of leading German linguists of that time. The focus is on the dictionary of Basler Studentensprache pubished in 1910. There is carried out comparative analysis of the youth sociolect of the past and the present and there singled out general tendencies in enriching their vocabulary.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.