Американская революция в женских дневниках
In this book, readers are presented with several women's diaries (Quakers, loyalists and Baroness of Brunswick), written by an eyewitness of the War for the independence of the USA, which are published in Russian for the first time.
During the Revolutionary War, women applied their traditional skills they learned as homemakers to espionage work. Often at great peril they secretly provided critical intelligence data to military and civilian leaders. There were several women in the Setauket Spy Ring that operated during revolution and kept general Washington supplied with information regarding the movements of the British troops in New York and Long Island.
The yearbook published materials about the period from the end of XVIII to the middle of XX century. The authors examine a wide range of problems - from the ratification of the Constitution in 1787 in Massachusetts to the so-called American university novel. The reader will find little-known travel impressions of poet Balmont from a trip to America in the early XX century. Under the heading "America and Russia" a comparative analysis of the relationship of Russian and American to aborigines, examined the activities of the Soviet scientific, technical and industrial intelligence in the U.S. during the Second World War. Canadian themes represented by articles on the protection of fur seals in the Russian -Canadian relations at the turn of XIX-XX centuries. and the evolution of the Canada -Mexico bilateral relations. In the " Bibliography " are works on the history of the United States and Canada, published in Russian in 2007-2008 . For historians, political scientists and all those interested in the history of America.
Sculpture has always been a purely masculine matter. However, history has known a number of women’s names in this art. One of them is Patience Lowell Wright (1725–1786). She molded her figures out of wax since childhood. After the death of her husband,to earn a living for herself and her children, she turned a hobby into a job. In the 17th century, the activities of professional sculptors in America were limited to the production of tombstones and nose pieces for ships. Patience’s sister showed how to model life-size figures. Patience decided to specialize in creating images of outstanding contemporaries. In short, a traveling exhibition (the first in the US) of figures of famous public figures was created. Two years later, the number of figures was enough to organize two permanent exhibitions in Philadelphia and New York. But on June 3, 1771, a fire destroyed many of her works and she decided to move to London. Owing to the patronage of Benjamin Franklin, she was quickly accepted into London society. She made many famous British figures including Th. Penn, Ch. Fox, W. Pitt, C. Macaulay. She had a friendly relationship even with the royal couple, but only before the start of the Independence War. The sculptor openly sided with the colonists. It is believed that she even sent spy information,hidden in her figures, to the members of the Continental Congress. Another sphere of Wright’s activities was the liberation of American prisoners that started with the “Platt Case”. After the struggle for independence resulted in an open conflict, Wright’s business declined sharply. Left without a job in 1780, she went to Paris, hoping to open a new wax studio. By making a bust of Franklin, she tried to find a way to Parisian society, but failed. In 1782, she returned to London and began writing to American leaders, including G. Washington and Th. Jefferson, for permission to make their models. By 1785, she decided to return to New Jersey. However, when preparing for the departure, she fell and broke her leg. A week later, on March 23, 1786, she died. Her sister Rachel was trying to get financial assistance from prominent Americans and the Continental Congress to pay for her burial, but to no avail. Ultimately, P. Wright was buried in London, and her place of burial is unknown now.
This article is about one of the most radical sects of independents — quakers. The English Govenment considered quakers to be a danger to the state and began to persecute them. As a result a lot of quakers went to the North America and founded their own colony there.
Folding of the American historical experience proceeded dramaticly, but brought important lessons for the development of all mankind. XXXIV International Conference of the Russian Society for the Study of American Culture, entitled "Display and interpretation of history in the culture of the United States", helped to analyze the dynamics of the processes associated with the perception of the history of North American cultural figures.
In this article we are talking about the early development of the educational process in one of England's North American colonies. Pennsylvania attracted many immigrants from Europe by its religious freedom. Moving to a new land, Europeans from different countries brought their way of life, including various systems of education. Therefore, at the end of the beginning of the XVII-XVIII centuries there were several different types of schools. The national education system, which appeared only in the XIX century has absorbed much of the colonists created.
Article dedicated to the women's participation in supplying of Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. Association of American women collected money, clothing and provisions helping troops to survive the crisis moments in the war life.
The second issue of the collection of articles is devoted to actual problems and new methods in the history of the USA in modern Russian American studies. The specialists from Moscow, Kursk, Orel, Tambov, Saransk, Astrakhan, Kirov and also from Belarus (Minsk), Ukraine (Kiev) and USA (Pennsylvania, Illinois) created it. It became international as a matter of fact. The mutual cooperation of different specialists in the American Studies: historians, philologists, culturologists, politologists, lawyers will be a special feature of this collection. There are different articles on actual questions. There are articles on domestic and foreign policy of the USA in 18-21 centuries. It has works on the history of American journalism, literature, theatre and law. The authors used new methods of studying: narrative, discourse, gender, interdisciplinary, comparative analysis and computer investigation of statistics. The collection of articles will be interesting and useful to researches, lectures and teachers, post-graduates and students, and also those who are interested in the problems of the USA.
The article is devoted to a monument of Japanese Medieval literature “Izayoi nikki” written by Nun Abutsu (1221?–1283). This work most likely was gathered and compiled after Abutsu’s death in 1283. Despite the genre designation nikki (日記, “daily recording”, “diary”) Abutsu’s work differs from another traditional diaries by its contents, style, and composition.
“Izayoi nikki” – “The Diary of the Waning Moon” or “The Journal of the Sixteenth-Night Moon" – is not only interesting but also a very important work for the Medieval Japanese literature. First, it is popular among the Japanese, since today this diary is one of the most read works of the Kamakura period. Second, the research of “Izayoi nikki” in context of the diary literature, demonstrates development of a genre nikki. Moreover, the diary consists of about 90 poems, which are the great example of women’s poetry tradition at this time. Finally, the personality of the author herself is very appealing to research deeply. Abutsu was married a famous poet Fujiwara-no Tameie and, more likely, played a key role in dividing the Fujiwara house into three poetic schools (Nijo, Kyogoku and Reizei).
As the last famous work by a woman, as the best known diary or travel account in Japanese written between the twelfth and sixteenth centuries, and as one of the five or six mostly read works of the Kamakura period, the “Izayoi nikki” has an important place in Japanese literature. “Izayoi nikki” gives valuable materials about culture and language of that time and definitely should be interesting for researches devoted to development of diary tradition in Japanese literature.