Национальные энергетические стратегии в условиях глобализации. Энергетика как платформа инновационного развития.
National energy strategies in the context of globalization. Energy as a platform for innovative development / Ed. S.V. Zukov. – Moscow, IMEMO RAN, 2014. – 100 p. The collection of articles combines the extended versions of reports presented at the conference of young researches, organized by Center of Energy Studies, IMEMO RAN and Faculty of International Energy Business, Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. The analysis focuses on national oil and gas strategies and innovative role of energy sector, including: problems of scenario modelling of tight oil production in the USA; combination of state regulation and market principles in American energy system; modeling of intensity of energy consumption in Russia; corporate and regional aspects of innovative development of oil and gas companies.
The author applied the decomposition method LMDI to investigate the factors that influences the energy intensity of power generation in Russia. The analysis allows to determine the connection between energy intensity of power generation and both technical and structural changes in electricity and heat production.
Due to limited energy sources and growing concerns about environment, secure, safe and sustainable energy has become one of the Grand Challenges at the global level. Likewise in many other aspects of life, energy is crucial for military forces. In parallel to the changing nature of warfare, the need for energy in military operations has increased dramatically. While energy consumption in the World War II was 1 gal per soldier per day, it was 4 gal per soldier per day during the Desert Storm operation in 1991. Not only the quantity, but also the type of energy required for military operations has changed dramatically. Shifts have been observed from individual man power to machines powered by fuel and electricity. Energy demand and type have changed further through the introduction of more sophisticated devices with new capabilities such as to enable night vision, designate targets with lasers, provide advanced sensing and communication capabilities and reduce human involvement in operations through drones and robotic technologies. Investigating the trends in changing nature of warfare and energy through review, technology mining and scientometrics, the present study develops future scenarios, and a strategic roadmap to identify priority technology areas and strategies for the future military energy R&D.
The article features a historical, philosophical, and psychological analysis of the concept of volition in the framework of the energetic approach. While acknowledging the existence of different approaches to volition, the authors justify the necessity to investigate this phenomenon from a new angle taking into consideration its energy component. The paper describes the history of the development of the concept of energy and gives a comparative analysis of its definitions in philosophical and psychological literature, which makes it possible to state that philosophers treat energy as a physical phenomenon, whereas psychologists focus on the psychic component of this concept. The authors offer a detailed review of the literature (domestic and foreign) in which volition and volitional qualities are defined through energy costs, energy efforts, and the concept of energy is used when studying behaviour, motivation, self-regulation, etc. In conclusion, the authors give their own interpretation of volition within the energetic approach based on the synthesis of the points of view described. The authors also make an assumption that the energy of volition changes the state of consciousness, which, in the long run, leads to some purposeful actions. The research results will make it possible to disclose, to some extent, one of the aspects of the complicated concept of energy in psychology. It will also help to investigate and define the intricate and contradictory concept of volition.
The modern system of global governance consists of a number of regimes in different issue-areas: security, finance, trade, investment and many other areas of global competition and cooperation. Despite a seemingly inexhaustible variety of those regimes, all of them may be classified by a finite (and small) number of governance structures. In our research, we defined seven types of governance structures, top–down: from global hierarchical coordinating bodies with powerful enforcement tools to a free international market. International actors based their choice of governance structures on a countable number of factors. Academic researchers working within the framework of transaction cost economics, primarily at the micro-level, investigated these factors.
This chapter seeks to identify the set of factors that played an important role in the choice of current modes of global governance, to trace their recent changes and to elucidate the economic rationale for the apparent or forecasted evolution of those governance structures. We focus our investigation on several global governance regimes—for energy, the environment and trade. Although these areas are transforming as the economic environment shifts, they nevertheless display patterns common to the general evolution of governance structures.
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A ROADMAP FOR U.S.-RUSSIA RELATIONS
The monograph explores the aesthetics of Russian formalism: energy intuitions, the theory of internal and external forms of the word, the theory of everyday literary life, the theory of literary evolution as a mimetic process. The literary theory of Formalists is placed in an interdisciplinary context, in particular, correlated with the ideas of French sociology (Durkheim, Tarde). The book also contains an article about the autobiographical prose of one of the leaders of the formal school - Viktor Shklovsky.
Is it possible for Russian energy companies to develop an effective business strategy based on the restrictions and rules of strategic documents of national scale?
Today Russian Energy Strategy sets the benchmarks for business. World experience confirms the possibility of adjusting corporate strategies for the benefit of society. Danish Energy Strategy prescribes a smooth transition to alternative energy sources and active implementation of smart energy resources. Experience of Norway in this area is also important. The third energy package of the EU defines the rules of the game influencing business models, strategies and long-term deliveries of external counterparties.
The set of methods allows for the analysis of open sources and materials for the development of national and corporate strategies. Management technologies allow us to specify and quantify the characteristics of the national energy strategy, and to reflect on the priorities in the development strategies of companies. The conditions of the state policy and the parameters of the companies' strategies will have more points of contact and reduce the risk of deviation from the declared goals. Revision of the program document is possible due to organizational design and methodological support.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.