Основы общей психологии: практикум
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
The contributions in this book are based on selected papers presented at the 4th European Conference on Positive Psychology held in Opatija, Croatia in 2008. The chapters are diverse in many ways, yet they all deal with the human pursuit of well-being. 22 chapters are grouped into six parts: happiness and well-being, motivation and goals, personality, academic performance and coping, measurement and intervention.
In Part I different aspects of Happiness and Well-Being are explored, beginning with an intriguing question: “Can We Get Happier Than We Are?” Other contributions analyze and discuss how several phenomena are related to well-being: self-serving attributional bias, affect specificity, leisure activities, the quality of subjective experience throughout daily life, benefits of positive emotions and predictors of post-traumatic growth in patients. The first is focused on biological origins of well-being, and the second analyses gender differences.
Part IV includes research on Academic Performance and Coping. The studies are focused on optimistic attributional style, patterns of self-regulated learning and burnout in secondary school context.
Part V is focused on Measurement and comprises three chapters which analyze psychometric characteristics of five different instruments: Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scales, Children Hope Scale, Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale, Keyes’ Mental Health Continuum and Vitality Scale.
Finally, Part VI describes and evaluates Interventions. The first contribution analyzes the effects of school interventions for promoting psychological well-being in adolescence. Other two interventions are aimed for specific groups: obese individuals and male disadvantaged adolescents.
Part II deals with Motivation and Goals. It starts with a review of the relationship between goals and well-being and continues with a study of adolescent life goals. The last paper explores meaning, personal growth and motivation toward therapy.
Part III, Personality, has two chapters about character strengths and well-being.
The article deals with the clauses or preconditions of language and culture acquisition. Following G. G. Shpet, A. A. Uchtomsky, M. Heidegger, N. A. Bernshtein and V. V. Bibikhin, the author qualifies them as «pre-experiential origin». This «origin» is regarded as direct intelligible intuition, spiritual integral, non-differentiated unity: I understand, I think, I can. Spontaneous character of this origin does not mean its primitiveness. Non-mediated pre-experiential origin develops in its differentiation that comes to life in joint activity, in interflowing communication giving birth to multiple forms of culture-mediated behavior. Development of these forms hampers perception and understanding of the world in its immediacy but also enriches these acts. Interchange and interaction of the immediate and the mediated is regarded as a necessary condition of human development and productive activity. The author questions the idea of division psychological functions into natural and cultural (higher), assumed in cultural-historical psychology.
The understanding of the personality crisis as an internal resource for self-development is reasoned. A comparative analysis of personality crisis, crisis situation and features of psychological assistance was performed. A model of psychological support in the short-term counseling is proposed that facilitates the constructive resolution to the personality crisis. The question of psychological sense of the crisis becomes the basis for intervention. The importance of the phenomenological method as a basis for counseling is underlined and the concepts of intervention and understanding psychology are compared.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.