Trust in soсiety, business and organization: Proceedings of the Conference “Business. Society. Human". M.: Cogito-Centre–IPRAS Publishing House, 2013.
The book includes proceedings of the conference “Business. Society. Human” (October 30–31, 2013, Moscow) organized by National Research University Higher School of Economics. The purpose of the conference: interdisciplinary analysis of actual problems of studying business in the social sciences: the relationship between business and society; social capital and trust; business and corporate culture; individual, group and organization in business; problems and prospects of business education and business consulting, etc. The book present the results of researches of trust and social capital carried out in various countries in Europe, Asia and in Russia. Authors are well-known sociologists, psychologists and economists. The results of these researches were presented at the conference. The papers are published as they were submitted by the author.
Consideration of trust and distrust as relatively autonomous psychological phenomena been indicated in 50-70-ies of the XXth century in the works by M. Deutsch, G. Mellinger, B.F. Porshnev, W. Read, etc. A more simplified approach to the problem of the correlation between trust and distrust has spread later as of these phenomena were seen as contradictory, conflicting, and thus interconnected. However, in recent years, an increasing number of works that shows that the trust and distrust as psychological phenomena are largely independent from one another. The study of distrust is important due to the fact that in real social interaction the conflicts, differences in goals and values as well as in norms and rules of conduct are typical. Interaction often takes place in conditions of high uncertainty, in the absence of regulation and control capabilities. In such circumstances, the most effective form of relationship is the balance of optimal levels of trust and distrust. Similar trends of social life determine the high relevance of joint analysis of trust and distrust as relatively independent phenomena that perform specific functions in the regulation of life of the individual and the group. This joint analysis is the goal of our study. As a result of theoretical and empirical research the definition of trust and distrust as mutually exclusive phenomena of polar valence has been proved wrong. The analysis of the conditions under which individuals are capable of simultaneously trusting and not trusting each other have been implemented. Conditions of ambivalence of trust and distrust are, first, the multidimensional and dynamic relationship between people, and second, a partner in the interaction having contradictory qualities, and third, high subjective assessment of risks arising from the high trust and openness of an individual (the subject) and partner for interaction, fourth, the contradictory attitudes of the subject to a number of individual traits of a person under assessment.