Наследственные и средовые факторы в восприятии отношений в парах близнецов и сиблингов
The aim of this study is to assess nonshared environment characteristics. Intrapair relations features were measured by Sibling differential experience questionnaire (SIDE) on MZ, DZ twins (75 pairs) and siblings (74 pairs). Consistency of twins’ and siblings’ ratings of «sibling interactions», «parental treatment» and «peer- group characteristics» is discussed. Results suggest genetic and environment influence on perception of twins and sibling relations.
This article examines the possibilities of constructing a discourse of the medial that involves no essential distinction between the spheres of the technical, the natural, and the human. Because the only area in which this distinction occurs is culture, this article analyzes the status of this distinction, its rationale, and its relevance to reality, as well as various ways to handle sign systems. The author considers theories in which this distinction is made in other ways (A. Gehlen, F. Rapp, A. Feenberg). Without an essential distinction (as in the works of A. Whitehead and G. Simondon), the natural, the technical, and the human can be differ- entiated on common grounds, forming an environment in which permu- tations of all the elements of formation might be called recombinations. The medial is then examined within this combinatorial environment. A special attention is paid to sound and its various theorizations in the media studies of B. Siegert, C. Cox, and E. Ikoniadou.
The paper is focused on one of the key aspects of Fyodor Vasilyuk’s contribution to the elabora¬tion of methodological foundations of psychology, namely, on the construct of lifeworld and ‘lifeworld ontology’ as a metatheoretical framework for the understanding of human life and activity in the world. The paper is subdivided into four sections. The first one gives the justification of Vasilyuk’s approach in terms of ‘lifeworld ontology’, reveals its conceptual connection with the ideas of A.N. Leontiev and S.L. Rubinstein. The second one is dedicated to the concept of lifeworld, its association with specifically human ways of existing in the world, its distinction from the environment and the idea of multiple hu¬man worlds. In the third section, the author reveals, basing on the conceptions of L. Binswanger, E. van Deurtzen and C. Popper, the multidimensional structure of human lifeworld and discusses the mutuality of human-world relationships. In the fourth section. a typology of lifeworlds is offered, based on three core criteria: past/present/future ratio, individual/society relationship, and factual/due/possible ratio as value orientations.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.