Роль продовольственной проблемы в современной мировой экономике
This article may be characterized as an analysis of the significance of global food problem on the current stage of world economy´s development. In this work the term ‘global food problem’ means unprecedented rise of world food price in the late XX – early XXI century, which make starve poor people in most countries. The author adduces the theoretical methods of approaching the global food problem, discloses the factors, which are the basis of this problem, describes the ways of mitigation of its impact on world economy. The article also contains the demarcation of the following terms: ‘food problem’ and ‘food security’. In the conclusion the author states that the main reason for the aggravation of the global food problem is a lack of investment to the applied agricultural sciences, which causes the inefficient use of resources. The conclusion also contains the ways of solving this problem.
The research contains the estimation of Revealed Comparative Advantage indices for food exporters and structural shifts in the global composition of food trade. The finding about the income elasticity of consumption for imported food have been done on the basis of AIDS and QAIDS models. At the final stage of the paper the authors implement the сombined forecast of the share of expenditures on imported food in total expenditures on food and the income elasticity of imported food consumption in Russia and Brazil till 2020. The key implication is that food (both imported and produced domestically) is a second need good.
This article is aimed to analyse the aptitude of numbering the “food power” among the factors of impact on world economy and policy. The author gives several examples, which illustrate the possibility to convert economic measures, connected with agricultural and trade policy of state, into political weapon.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.