Типология и анализ научно-образовательной результативности российских вузов
Over the past decades due to increasing economic pressure and rising demands by government and society, the organizational landscape of higher education is changing while university activities become more diversified. The focus of public support is shifting from funding current activities of universities towards rewarding outcomes. There are, as a result, many strategies to adapt and develop universities in this changing environment. For example, emerging typologies for structuring a network of higher education institutions (HEIs) taking into account their diversity are at the forefront in many countries of agendas for greater efficiency in higher education. We advance a typology for HEIs in Russia taking into account indicators of research and teaching activities. We present an overview of best practices for HEIs, some typologies, a set of indicators and mathematical tools for constructing a typology of Russian public HEIs. This typology is based on clustering the input (resource allocation) and output (performance) indicators that characterize academic and educational achievements of HEIs. The proposed classification differentiates types of universities and contains a decision tree that allows assigning universities to one category or another. It can be used as a basis for a comprehensive analysis of diverse Russian universities and for government policies to address each of the identified HEI types, depending on their characteristics.
In recent years, the strategic planning of spatial development is becoming increasingly important when making of critical decisions in management and economics. This paper deals with the issues of Russian and international researches in the field of system modeling implementation and how it can be used for support the process of spatial strategic planning in the context of theory of regional economic growth and development. The main goal of this paper is analysis the main domains or areas of system models applying. Scientific methodology of the research is based on system approach and comprehensive consideration of the processes of spatial strategic planning and modeling. Original contribution of the work is classification (typology) of models, used in spatial strategic planning.
The paper covers the issues of accountability of higher education institutions (HEIs) in five countries: Brazil, Canada, Italy, Portugal, and Russia1 . National frameworks and their implementation are examined. The special focus of the review is performance-based evaluation and funding. The reflection on outcomes is followed by the recommendations to policy-makers, researchers and practitioners. This paper was commissioned by the Global Education Monitoring Report as background information to assist in drafting the 2017/8 GEM Report, Accountability in education: Meeting our commitments. It has not been edited by the team. The views and opinions expressed in this paper are those of the author(s) and should not be attributed to the Global Education Monitoring Report or to UNESCO. The papers can be cited with the following reference: “Paper commissioned for the 2017/8 Global Education Monitoring Report, Accountability in education: Meeting our commitments”.
In recent years, the strategic spatial planning of regional development is becoming increasingly important when making critical decisions in management and economics. One of the advantages of scientific direction devoted to solving problems related to strategic management of spatial economic systems is its interdisciplinary nature and ability to take advantage of system analysis and synergetic effect in the study of a range of different fields of knowledge. Another distinguishing feature is the synthesis of conceptual categories and methodologies of public sciences, sociology, humanities and technical sciences. Frequently, such decisions involve using adequate system models and appropriate methodological approaches. Hereby, the role and importance of modeling are increasing, particularly in the creation of interdisciplinary databases and forecasting. It is theoretical and empirical study in equal measure. The scientific methodology of the research is system approach and comparative analysis, dynamic principle, and comprehensive consideration of the processes of spatial strategic planning and hybrid modeling. This paper deals with the issues of system modeling implementation and how system models can be used to support the process of spatial strategic planning (SSP) in the context of theory of regional economic growth and development. The main goal of this paper is analysis the main domains of system models application. The paper focuses on a particular group of models and modeling systems – hybrid intelligent models and systems that allow in conditions of uncertainty, incomplete initial data and complex interdependence between elements of investigated spatial regional economics system to evaluate the implications of realization of various scenarios of strategic spatial development. The original contribution of this work is the classification (typology) of models, used in spatial strategic planning of regions. This typology is determined by the models’ complexity and variety of application areas.
This volume is a contribution to the typology of the category of aspect. Its aim is bringing forward new empirical data from languages not yet (widely) covered in typological aspectual investigations and to start or broaden their typological discussion. The articles in the paper are grouped in two sections. The first section is an account of aspectual systems of languages in four linguistic areas, including Europe, the Caucasus, Northeast Eurasia, and Africa and the Americas. The second section focusses on specific aspectual categories in individual languages or cross-linguistically.
The Russian Constructicon project currently prioritizes multi-word constructions that are not represented in dictionaries and that are especially useful for learners of Russian. The immediate goal is to identify constructions and determine the semantic constraints on their slots. The Russian Constructicon is being built in parallel with the Swedish Constructicon and will ultimately model the entire Russian language in terms of constructions at all levels from morpheme to discourse. The contents of the Russian Constructicon will serve learners of the language, linguists researching both language-internal and typological phenomena, and will also serve language technology applications such as spell checkers and automated readability assessment tools.
The work reveals the characteristic features of the contemporary American press, its structure, typology, the system of regulation and self-regulation of the press, the changes took place due to the development of Internet. The article also shows the today situation in the newspapers market of the USA, changes in the activity of the leading American newspapers.
In this paper, we discuss the methods of endowment management existing in the world and their applicability to the Russian university system. The endowment spending research focuses on the following issues: reinvesting endowment income; identifying the size of expendable endowment income; using the endowment body, not onlyincome; choosing endowment spending policy, rule and rate endowments, etc. We provide an overview of endowment fund financial indicators and endowment spending allocationin Russia. Based on the example of the HSE Endowment Fund, we analyze the use of endowment spending rulesand model of financial indicators for 2008–2014. The University’s Endowment Fund endowment spending policies implement the preservation principle, which may be reasonable in a stable economy. However, the viability of the principle is questionable in the crisis, the more so since the endowment is mostly in rubles. Using net asset valuation methods, the HSE Endowment Fund could provide equity betweengenerations with annual distribution of income in favor of the next and current generations.
The article examines cultural preconditions for search and classification of the types within theoretical psychology of personality. Special features of the European culture of thinking, cultural conditions of the historic emergence of the personality types, usage of the cultural experience for development of the authors' personality typologies as well as cultural determination and orientation of the personal traits are among them. The model of cultural and psychological typification of the personality relations based on the above preconditions is offered.