Социально-психологический капитал и предпринимательская активность личности
New notion “socio-psychological capital” is proposed and operationalized. From the author’s point of view, socio-psychological capital is a certain psychological relations that are a basis for social capital forming. I. Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior is used as theoretical bases for entrepreneurial behavior study. It is shown that there is an infl uence of some components of socio-psychological capital (institutional trust, social trust and perceived social capital) on socio-cognitive phenomena underlying the intention to open person’s own business. It is stated that socio-psychological capital does not infl uence directly on intention to open one’s own business.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of socio - psychological capital on the individual 's intention to open a private business. The hypothesis of our study was that people who intend to start their own business have a higher socio- psychological capital, which positively affects their intention to start their own business . Social and psychological capital personality - a resource person , which is a degree of balance in the exchange relationship with the immediate environment and the social environment that allows her to get help and improve the social environment. The sample included 269 respondents EU nationals to start their own business . As a socio- psychological capital were assessed three types of resources: the different resources obtainable from family and friends ( willingness to help in the event of financial, legal, bureaucratic problems) , the number of friends , frequency of contact with family members , involvement in the activities of various organizations. In assessing the intention of opening your own business , we relied on the theory of planned behavior A.Ayzena (Ajzen, 1991). Additionally used the construct of "implementation intentions » (Gollwitzer, 1999) , allowing to estimate the correlation honey intention and implementation. To assess the contribution of social and psychological capital in the implementation of the entrepreneurial intention of using the structural equation modeling (Joreskog & Sorbom, 1993) study showed the socio- psychological capital (resources, which can be represented family involvement in the formal network of relationships ) shows a direct positive impact on intention to start a business , as well as on the perceived behavioral control and installation. The exception is one of the components of social and psychological capital - the number of friends that demonstrates the opposite effect on the components of planned behavior . The study concluded that the social and psychological capital is a facilitator of the intention to open private businesses.
The paper is devoted to the new construct in social psychology - socio-psychological capital of a person. The necessity of its introduction to the conceptual apparatus of social psychology is justified. Analysis of the concept is conducting in a way of how it can be integrated in intercultural relations of such multicultural society as Russia. This article contains definition of socio-psychological capital of a person, description of its structure, possible predictors and effects.
This article examines the relationship between value orientations and Entrepreneurial Intention according to Reasoned Action Approach. The empirical base of this study late on the results of a representative survey conducted in 2 regions of Russia (Central Federal District and the North Caucasian Federal District). The total sample included 2,061 respondents. Interviews were conducted with representative samples of 1,026 respondents from the Central Federal District of Russia, including Moscow, and 1,035 respondents from the North Caucasian Federal District of Russia. It was selected a subsample (269 pers.) from this sample. The subsample was composed of the respondents intending to open a business in the next 2 years. The results of research carried out in the framework of Reasoned Action Approach, allowed us to confirm the validity of the Theory of Planned Behavior in the Russian sample. The questionnaire included methods related to the assessment of values (PVQ-R), entrepreneurial intentions, and demographic variables.
To establish convergent and divergent validity of all the constructs of the theory of planned behaviour, attitude toward the behaviour, social norms, perceived behavioural control, and intention as well as the additionally introduced concept of implementation intention, we tested our measurement model simultaneously for all measures. For this purpose we conducted a simultaneous confirmatory factor analysis using maximum likelihood estimation for estimating all parameters.
It was also found that the value of Self-Direction (Action) is positively associated with the components of model of entrepreneurial planned behavior (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control). Value of Security (Personal) is negatively associated with attitude toward idea of opening a new business.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.