This book presents the results of a project, implemented with the support of the Russian Geographical Society. The project studied the environmental conditions in the regions and cities of Russia, and developed methodological tools to assess the human impact on the environment. For the first time an integrated study was conducted, linking the human impact on the environment in 83 regions and 1100 cities of Russia with population health assessments at the federal and regional levels as well as the analysis of contaminants in soil, vegetation, snow cover, bottom sediments in dozens of sample areas. A set of methods and approaches for the integrated assessment of environmental situations in regions and cities of Russia at different spatial scales has been developed. An integrated multi-spacial scaling technique was developed to assess the ecological status of regions and cities in Russia
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.