Нарративы о независимости и волевом функционировании: от подросткового возраста к «становящейся взрослости»
Based on the psychological theories of separationindividuation and selfdetermination, the article proposes a conceptualization of “autonomy” as independence and volitional functioning. While independence is the ability to act without help of other people, the volitional functioning is behavior in accordance with one's own values and interests. This theoretical framework is new for the Russian context and can be used to study growing up, age transitions, and building a life trajectory in the social sciences.To study the ideas of autonomy and the practice of its implementation, the authors conducted 30 interviews with informants aged 11 to 24 from megacities, millionplus cities, large and small cities of Russia. Adolescence and emerging adulthood were chosen because there are many opportunities for developing autonomy at this time, but simultaneously there are many limitations. The interviews were processed within the narrative analysis approach by David Hiles, Ivo Čermák, and Vladimír Chrz in its “categorycontent” coding version.The study did not reveal any difference in the informants’ ideas about autonomy. Both adolescents and emerging adults pay more attention to independence (behavioral autonomy) at the levels of ideas and actions. At the same time, they discuss volitional functioning less often, that indicates the social conditioning of independence. The volitional functioning increases with age, although the tasks aimed at developing independence remain relevant. For most adolescents, independence plays a leading role, and volitional functioning is just beginning to emerge. For emerging adults, sociodemographic factors play a significant role in the development of autonomy; independence and volitional functioning of those who live separately from their parents, moved to another city and/or got married are higher and more interconnected. Volitional functioning prevails among those who live with their parents, and their socialization occurs more gradually in the conditions of family assistance in solving various problems.The results show the relevance of the framework for distinguishing autonomy as independence and volitional functioning for the indicated ages and allow to deepen understanding of the autonomy formation highlighting their interconnected or isolated development in different sociopsychological situations.