Interannual variability in the ecosystem CO2 fluxes at a paludified spruce forest and ombrotrophic bog in the southern taiga
Climate warming in high latitudes impacts CO2 sequestration of the northern peatlands through the changes in production and decomposition processes. The response of the net CO2 fluxes between ecosystems and the atmosphere to climate change and weather anomalies can vary across forest and non-forest peatlands. To better understand the differences in CO2 dynamics at forest and non-forest boreal peatlands induced by changes in environmental conditions, the estimates of interannual variability in the net ecosystem exchange (NEE), total ecosystem respiration (TER), and gross primary production (GPP) was obtained at two widespread peatland ecosystems – paludified spruce forest and the adjacent ombrotrophic bog in the southern taiga of west Russia using 6 years of paired eddy covariance flux measurements. Both positive and negative annual and growing season air temperature and precipitation anomalies were observed in the period of measurement (2015–2020). Flux measurements showed that, in spite of the lower growing season TER (332±17 … 339±15 gC m−2) and GPP (442±13 … 464± 11 gC m−2) rates, the bog had a higher CO2 uptake rates (NEE was … ) than the forest, except for the warmest and the wettest year of the period (2020), and was an atmospheric CO2 sink in the selected years, while the forest was a CO2 sink or source, depending on the environmental conditions. Growing season NEE at the forest site was between and 28±40 gC m−2, TER between 1135±64 and 1366±58 gC m−2, and GPP between 1207±66 and 1462±107 gC m−2. Annual NEE at the forest was between and 145±41 gC m−2, TER between 1429±87 and 1652±44 C m−2, and GPP between 1345±89 and 1566±41 gC m−2, respectively. Under the anomalously warm winter conditions with sparse and thin snow cover (2019/2020), the increased daily GPP, TER, and net CO2 uptake at the forest was observed, while at the bog, the changes in CO2 fluxes between the warm and cold winters were not significant. This study suggests that the warming in winter can increase the CO2 uptake of the paludified spruce forests of the southern taiga in non-growing seasons.