Городской стресс и его предикторы: психологическое исследование
In this article the phenomenon of urban stress as a stress caused or provoked by the conditions of the living environment is investigated. The methodological basis of the study was the Person-Environment Fit Theory. The study involved 396 Russian-speaking urban residents (314 women, 82 men; aged 16-74, M = 25.0, SD = 11.2). Non-clinical states of anxiety, depression, and stress were considered as effects. The Perceived residential environment quality (PREQ) scales (19 subscales), Neighbourhood attachment (NA) scale and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale (DASS-21) were used. The analysis showed that the length of time living in the neighbourhood and neighbourhood attachment had no associations with indicators of distress, that age was negatively related, and gender moderated the strength of the relationship between the qualities of the urban environment and distress (the connection was stronger in women). A negative connection was found between distress indicators and many qualities of the urban environment. Regression analysis showed that anxiety and stress were the most sensitive to the urban environment, and depression was the least sensitive. Moderation analysis showed that ensembles of predictors varied depending on the level of distress indicators; the strongest connections were found in the groups of average distress indicators. Further, it was shown that the social characteristics of the urban environment contributed more to the prevention of distress, compared with the architectural and physical ones. The results obtained appear to be helpful in organizing the urban activism events, and also should be taken into account in renovation and redesign of the city blocks.