Интернационализация кластеров как инструмент повышения национальной конкурентоспособности: европейский опыт
The article observes European experience of improving national competitiveness through cluster internationalization.
The review of studies made in the EU shows that networks are not capable of long-term excellence and development unless its members are acting in global markets and involved in international knowledge transfer.
Based on the analysis of European experience the authors of the article suggest a working definition of “cluster internationalization” as well as a basic toolbox for internationalization of networks, including a set of criteria for identification of world-class clusters, a guide for designing a cluster internationalization strategy and a list of internationalization support programs.
This paper aims to introduce and prove an estimation mechanism of cluster’s development conditions in the economy of region. The research is based on the assumptions of V. Chiesa’s work where four “driving forces” of cluster forming are defined. The empirical analysis of cluster forming conditions in economic sectors of Perm region is pres ented over 2004-2007 years. The introduced approach uses public statistical data only.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.