Недобросовестность как исключение из принципа независимости аккредитива в зарубежном банковском праве
ON APPLYING RF LABOUR CODE IN COURTS: CONTROVERSIES (summary of presentations at the conference Topical Issues of Court Decisions on Labour Disputes) The summary covers topical theoretical and practical issues of applying RF Labour Code in courts. Labour Code norms and court decisions are considered, proposals on improving the labour laws are put forward. The core of the summary is the paper of B.A. Gorokhov, the Chairman of the Board on Labour and Social Cases of the RF Supreme Court Topical issues of Court Decisions on Labour Disputes.
The article is devoted to the order of exemption from advance payment of excise duty on alcohol products through the provision of the tax authority of a bank guarantee. On the basis of the analysis of the brought changes in chapter 22 of the Tax code of the Russian Federation the point of view that the order of clearing of payment of advance payment of the excise is insufficiently settled is proved and needs in the further completions.
On February 13, 2018, the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation declared judgment No. 8-П «On Constitutionality of the Provisions of paragraph 4 of Article 1252, Article 1487 and paragraphs 1, 2 and 4 of Article 1515 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation in connection with complaint of the limited liability company «PAG», which in many respects is crucial for parallel importers operating on the Russian market. In addition to the question of the constitutionality of parallel imports per se, the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation touched on several other very important legal topics, including abuse of exclusive rights, individualization of liability for IP infringements, and expressed its attitude towards sanctions imposed by foreign states against Russia. The Constitutional Court confirmed that national exhaustion rule prescribed by the Civil Code of the Russian Federation is not contrary to the Constitution. However, courts must differentiate civil liability when they deal with counterfeited goods and parallel imports due to the fact that parallel importation does not represent equal threat to the right holders compared to counterfeiting. Moreover, it was stressed that in cases of abuse of rights, bad faith behavior or refusal to supply goods to Russia because of compliance with sanctions regime against Russia courts are authorized to deny claims of the right holders to prevent parallel imports.