Как сложились команда реформаторов и ее программа, или о неофициальном экономическом дискурсе в реформаторском движении 1980-х годов
This book explores the application of field theory (patterns of interaction) to Russian economic history, and how social and political fields mediate the influences of institutions, structures, discourses and ideologies in the creation and dissemination of economic thinking, theory and practice. Using focused cases on Russia's economy from the mid-nineteenth century to the present, Hass and co-authors expand the empirical basis of field studies to provide new material on Russian economic history. The cases are divided into two complementary halves: i) The role of fields of institutions, discourses, and structures in the development of Russian economic thought, especially economic theories and discourses; and ii) The role of fields in the real adoption and implementation of policies in Soviet and Russian economic history.
With developed discussion of fields and field theory, this book moves beyond sociology to demonstrate to other disciplines the relation of fields and field theory to other frameworks and methodological considerations for field analysis, as well as providing new empirical insights and narratives not as well-known abroad.
The paper offers the following hypothesis: the Big Band (Shock Therapy) strategy of the 1990s in Russia has led to more non-rational behavior of the ordinary Russian people. The point is that in order to make completely rational decisions a person needs avoid both lack of information and information overload. Radical “transition to the market system” by means of the Big Bang strategy had reinforced both these obstacles to rational behavior. On the one hand, radical reforms had increased uncertainty. On the other hand, due to these reforms ordinary Russian people faced with big amount of information which was complex for perception, first of all, on goods and financial markets. The contemporary social, political and economic problems of Russia are concerned, in particular, with low degree of rationality of many its citizens. Roots of it are, among others, in the Big Bang strategy of the 1990s.
Polish and Russian “shock therapy” policies in 1990 and 1992 respectively were – in fact - forced deregulation packages, aimed at preventing total macroeconomic and institutional collapse. Some important features of these packages were contrary to neo-classical prescriptions, since the “shock therapists” operated in unprecedented setting of imploding “command economy”. This setting as such never was a subject of neo-liberal theoreticians before it became empirical reality.
Marxist-Leninist single party-state regimes are prone to macroeconomic implosion, since the socio-economic actors they create during forced “transition to market” prefer neither “plan”, nor “market”, but a grey “no-man’s land” between the two. This position allows them to “privatize the profits” and to “nationalize the costs”, contributing to accumulation of tremendous macroeconomic imbalances on the aggregate systemic level. It also creates socio-economic, political and institutional impasse of financial deleveraging, which may eventually turn into a forced “big-bang” package amidst systemic implosion.
Chinese “gradual transition” – with all singularities – still fits quite well into this dynamic empirical pattern. Sharp decline in the Chinese growth rate since spring 2013 was a manmade phenomenon. The leadership’s intend to deregulate interest rates and upgrade financial discipline scared investors making them to withdraw money from the state and non-state assets. The overall systemic setting increases the chances of financial deleveraging in China to turn eventually into a forced “big-bang” upheaval.
Economic crisis in globalized world made inevitable forging of a system of governance which would prevent the international community from large scale upheavals in future. The 2008-2009 summits of G-20 gave hope of a possibility to form a global political leadership. So far the system of international governance is being mapped up and appears in the form of a triangle with UN, G-20 and the most influential international institutions (WTO, IMF, MB) as its three facets.
The chapter traces the history and reconstructs the logic of ownership debates in Soviet economic thought. Despite crucial role that ownership received in the Soviet economic literature, this concept predominantly was conceived legally thus making economic discourse inconsistent and dogmatic. Attempts to overcome this inconsistency by the leading schools of Soviet economic thought are considered and related to the broder contexts of ideological, political and economic discourses.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.