Human knowledge models: Learning applied knowledge from the data
Artificial intelligence and machine learning have demonstrated remarkable results in science and applied work. However, present AI models, developed to be run on computers but used in human-driven applications, create a visible disconnect between AI forms of processing and human ways of discovering and using knowledge. In this work, we introduce a new concept of “Human Knowledge Models” (HKMs), designed to reproduce human computational abilities. Departing from a vast body of cognitive research, we formalized the definition of HKMs into a new form of machine learning. Then, by training the models with human processing capabilities, we learned human-like knowledge, that humans can not only understand, but also compute, modify, and apply. We used several datasets from different applied fields to demonstrate the advantages of HKMs, including their high predictive power and resistance to noise and overfitting. Our results proved that HKMs can efficiently mine knowledge directly from the data and can compete with complex AI models in explaining the main data patterns. As a result, our study reveals the great potential of HKMs, particularly in the decision-making applications where “black box” models cannot be accepted. Moreover, this improves our understanding of how well human decision-making, modeled by HKMs, can approach the ideal solutions in real-life problems.