The author sums up the results of the sociological study of the political orientations of people's deputies of the Russian Federation, held in June 1990. These orientations were evaluated according to three criteria: the right — the left; authoritarianism—democracy; and plebiscitarian democracy—predisposition to / estrangement from. 466 deputies were polled, which is 44 per cent of the total number. The poll showed that the political mentality of a great part of MPs was still at the formative stage. The author describes the predominant political views of the MPs as "slightly right of the centre". He goes on to state the attitudes of the deputies to the key economic, social, ethical and other problems this country faces. The influence of "imperial ideology" is very insignificant. The controversial issue of the attitude to the October 1917 revolution plays the role of a splitting factor. The author singles out three sufficiently homogeneous groups in terms of their political selfindentification: the deputies who support Communists alone or Communists and some other parties — 41 per cent; deputies with an exclusively social-democratic orientation, or supporting social democrats plus some other parties except Communists — 36 per cent; deputies who support any parties except Communists or social democrats or those who still have no party orientation—23 per cent. Those belonging to the party/state nomenklatura make up the core of the "communist" group, intellectuals play the same role among the "social democrats". The author believes that political mentality of Russia's deputies will evolve towards the right, with the growing importance of the "social democrats" and the diminishing role of the "communists".