Институциональное развитие малого и среднего предпринимательства в российской экономике
The article examines the specifics of small business sector institutional development in the transitional economy of Russia. It shows that small business adjustment has brought about a number of economic institutions, for example, business networks and vertically integrated structures. But business associations as a fully-fledged institution representing and protecting the interests of small business have not been established yet. Business ties and transactions are maintained through informal contracts, businessmen' personal relations. This practice has triggered the development of the shadow economy. A similar institutional development of the sector has had mainly negative results. The analysis has used the results of formalized surveys and in-depth interviews with entrepreneurs and small business managers held by IPSSA (with the participation of the article's author) in 1992 to 1998.
Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research is a compilation of the conference proceedings and the top papers presented each year at the Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC). BCERC is widely considered the premier research conference on entrepreneurship and the work truly exemplifies new frontiers in the discipline of entrepreneurship. Full text papers are peer reviewed; summaries, poster sessions and interactive papers are not.
This paper develops a strategy for investigating the new institutionalism in economic sociology. An analytical scheme is proposed to link institutional arrangements, structure of incentives, and conceptions of control. Questions regarding the legitimacy of claims on resources and profits, contract enforcements, and business networking are discussed on the theoretical level.
The case addresses the problems of managing strategic change in a small business company Kislorod Plus (Niznhny Novgorod, Russia) – a local trader of welding equipment. The story starts with firing the company’s executive, who took a number of dramatic mistakes, and thus failed implementing corporate strategy, ruined the economy of the firm, and created a significant threat of bankruptcy. Notwithstanding all the problems of the heavy crisis, the company and the situation still have a number of opportunities that are to be recognized and pursued in order to save the business and lead the company to prosperity.
The volume deals with the current frontier research in entrepreneurship theory in Europe on contextual and processual specifics of entrepreneurial practice
We review the transition of the Russian banking sector focusing on the interplay between ownership change and institutional change. We find that the state's withdrawal from commercial banking has been inconsistent and limited in scope. To this day, core banks have yet to be privatized and the state has made a comeback as owner of the dominant market participants. We also look at the new institutions imported into Russia to regulate banking and finance, including rule of law, competition, deposit insurance, confidentiality, bankruptcy, and corporate governance. The unfortunate combination of this new institutional overlay and traditional local norms of behavior have brought Russia to an impasse - the banking sector's ownership structure hinders further advancement of market institutions. Indeed, we may now be witnessing is a retreat from the original market-based goals of transition.
Drawing on the neo-institutional approach in organizational theory and global strategy, we advance a theory on the impact that differences in cultural egalitarianism have on multinational firms’ decision of where to engage in foreign direct investment (FDI) across the globe. Egalitarianism expresses a society’s cultural orientation with respect to intolerance for abuses of market and political power; it shapes the ways in which firms holding power interact with different stakeholders. After presenting a series of case illustrations, we find a strong negative impact of egalitarianism distance on FDI flows in a broad sample of nations and for different entry modes. Our results are robust to a broad set of competing accounts, including effects from other cultural dimensions, major features of the legal and regulatory regimes, other features of the institutional system, and economic development. These results hold while controlling for origin and host country factors through a fixed-effects specification as well as by using instruments for egalitarianism. We also find that other cultural influences are important as well. Differences in cultural harmony are actually positively associated with increased FDI flows, likely because multinational firms seek countries with lower societal support for entrepreneurship. FDI further tends to flow from high embeddedness to low embeddedness countries, and we link this in part to international regulatory arbitrage on environmental protection regimes.
The book contains papers by the leading contemporary researchers of entrepreneurship who belong to the group of awardees of the Global awared in entrepreneurship research as well as outlines of their research activities. First concise collection of the mainstream entrepreneurship research ideas of the end of the 20th - beginning of the 21th centuries.
Relevance of statement and studying of a problem of entrepreneurial culture development of future managers is connected with features of development of the country, with orientation of the higher education to humanistic values and meanings. In our opinion the entrepreneurial culture can be considered in a context of cultures. The article presents a view on entrepreneurial culture in a context of "culture of usefulness and dignity". The entrepreneurial culture in the modern conditions, arisen as culture of usefulness, seeks to develop in itself lines of the personality significant culture, focused on dignity, "public understanding", the humanistic principle of "solidarity". Solving problems of modernization of the higher education, relying on competence-based approach, development of entrepreneurial culture in professional education of modern managers gets a special sense. Authors defined the basic principles and problems of the educational process directed on formation of entrepreneurial culture. Experience of faculty of management of NRU HSE in Nizhny Novgorod is presented in article, the program of entrepreneurial culture development of the youth is described. The program is realized consistently at three levels, each is caused by the purposes, methods, forms, age features of participants: The first level - "Formation of an image of the modern businessman". The second level – "An entrepreneurial mentality. First experience". The third level - "I am a businessman! ".
One of the most popular statements in the systemic transition literature since the second half of the 1990th is that different experiences of the CEE and Baltic states, on the one hand, and the most of the CIS countries, on the other hand, are embedded in different social norms and values, encouraging efforts in the new EU member states and preventing it in some of CIS countries.
The book contains teaching materials and notes on the study course “Entrepreneurship”.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.