Исследование хронического профессионального стресса у врачей терапевтов участковой поликлинической медицинской помощи Невского района Санкт-Петербурга
It is shown that chronic stress contributes to the formation development of emotional stress in health care workers and is a component of the burnout syndrome. On the formation of the latter affect individual personality characteristics, the nature of interpersonal relations and factors of the organization of professional activity. Used by many researchers evaluation of professional burnout syndrome are considered regardless of the physiological characteristics, which complicates the interpretation of study results, and introduces an element of subjectivity. It is shown that annual survey is necessary to supplement dispensary studies of autonomic tone of the cardiovascular system, identifying risk factors that would more accurately diagnose the syndrome of professional burnout. The proposed set of methods to determine the severity of occupational stress, the peculiarities of its formation and main elements of the pathogenesis of psycho-vegetative disorders. Offered the practical recommendations in the form of implementation in hospitals of prevention of chronic occupational stress. The latter consisting of diagnostic and preventive steps, on which the activities of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention at the individual, interpersonal and organizational level, which significantly reduces the severity of professional stress of physicians and improve their professional longevity.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
The general aim of this thesis is to explore the gendered and classed nature of social work and social welfare in Russia to show how social policy can be a part of and reinforce marginalisation. The overall research question is in what ways class and gender are constructed in Russian social work practice and welfare rhetoric through Soviet legacies and contemporary challenges? In addition, which actors contribute to the constitution of social work values and how this value system affects the agency of the clients? This study focuses on contradictory ideologies that are shaped in discursive formations of social policy, social work training and practice. It is a qualitative study, containing fi ve papers looking at this issue from three different perspectives: policy and institutions, culture and discourse, actors and identity. The data collection was arranged as a purposive–iterative process. The empirical material consists of qualitative interviews with social work practitioners, administrators and clients, participant observations in social services and analysis of documents of various kinds.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.
In the internal medicine wide spectrum the gastroenterology is one of the chapters, less enlightened by the scientific evidence. It does not mean that the practice of the grasntroenterology may ot be improved by the systematic use of the approaches of the evidence based medicine