Роль билингвизма в формировании нейрокогнитивного резерва
Development of science, society and medicine leads to a steady increase in average life expectancy. As a result, science is facing new challenges, including prevention of dementia and the maintenance of efficient brain performance during human aging. Bilingualism is one of the protective factors that prevent cognitive decline and maintain brain neuroplasticity. However, the debate about the neu- roprotective properties of bilingualism is still relevant. This article will consider the phenomenon of reserve and determine the relationship between bilingualism and reserve components such as brain reserve, neuronal reserve and neuronal compensation. Moreover, the article will provide an over- view of studies on the neural and cognitive mechanisms of bilingualism in healthy brain during ag- ing. In conclusion, we will try to determine how bilingualism can protect the brain from aging through the interaction between brain and cognitive reserves.