Эмпирическая проверка положений статической компромиссной теории структуры капитала: сравнение по различным странам
In this review author addresses the problem of finding the empirical evidence for propositions of static trade-off theory of capital structure. The object of the ongoing analysis is the results of studies, in which the features of companies' capital structure in different countries are compared. The review covers a number of sophisticated researches by different authors, who use classic investigation approaches (regressions) and some less widely spread ones. It is found to be clear that in most cases the results depend much on the approach used by the author. The stress is put on some alternative methods, particularly, on the surveys of chief executives in order to uncover their opinion about the importance of different factors affecting the process of making financial decisions. The aim of the review is to examine the three sides of the comparative analysis between different countries: 1) contribution of classic factors (tax shield and costs of financial distress) into the capital structure of companies in different countries; 2) the degree of confirmation of static trade-off theory in American and non-American companies; 3) influence of country-specific factors on the capital structure. In result author comes to a conclusion that though some difference in capital structure determinants between countries exists, it is not dramatic. Nevertheless the need to investigate of country-specific factors still remains, considering the growth of multinational companies and cross-country transactions. It is important that the common tendencies are noticed among large number of countries, but this fact doesn't mean that the static trade-off theory is confirmed for all of its propositions in all economies, especially considering the gradation of some capital structure factors for managers according to the surveys. On the contrary there is strong evidence that the trade-off model does not explain all of the features of capital structure in the world, though in some cases it can be useful to describe financial policies in particular countries, depending on the quality of political and financial system.
Current article is dedicated to the relationship between effectiveness of usage of intellectual capital and capital structure of firms in Russia in 2005-2007. Current research showed that effectiveness of usage of intellectual capital of firms has a positive influence over the level of financial leverage. The result of the research has showed that the more effective usage of intellectual capital makes a company more attractive for the credit organizations and opens more sources to obtain financing. There were also revealed some specific features of relationship between the effectiveness of utilization of intellectual capital and corporate financial decisions in Russia. The result is consistent with the results from the similar researches from the developed markets.
The Working Paper examines the peculiarities of the Russian model of corporate governance and control in the banking sector. The study relies upon theoretical as well as applied research of corporate governance in Russian commercial banks featuring different forms of ownership. We focus on real interests of all stakeholders, namely bank and stock market regulators, bank owners, investors, top managers and other insiders. The Anglo-American concept of corporate governance, based on agency theory and implying outside investors’ control over banks through stock market, is found to bear limited relevance. We suggest some ways of overcoming the gap between formal institutions of governance and the real life.
The chapter describes the current state of corporate governance in Russia and the dynamics of recent years. Important features of the environment that affect corporate governance include weak legal institutions that lead to high private benefits to control, underdeveloped capital markets, high levels of ownership concentration and significant state involvement in business. In this situation, the main conflict of interest is not between a manager and a large number of dispersed shareholders, but between large and small shareholders, between different large shareholders, and between minority shareholders and managers/board members in state-owned companies. Many of these features are very similar to other emerging markets, but substantially different from conditions faced by firms in developed countries. Despite substantial improvement during the 2000s, the quality of corporate governance in Russia is still much lower than in developed countries, primarily because of the low quality of Russian institutions.
The main purpose of this monograph is to identify the key factors of risk man- agement efficiency of firm, whose management is able to increase the investment attractiveness of the business in general, as well as the formation of an effective or- ganizational risk management model that allows, on the one hand - to provide reliable protection for companies against unexpected losses, on the other hand - to make a risk management tool for the creation of corporate value. This monograph presents the organization of risk management in accordance with the latest regulatory require- ments. In the monograph authors provide a developed methods for evaluating the effectiveness of existing mechanisms of risk management, based on a representative theoretical review of the scientific literature of leading researchers in the field of risk management and internal control. In addition, an algorithm for evaluating the econom- ic and investment efficiency of the risk management is given, that takes into account the existing methods of performance evaluation, as well as recommendations on the organization of internal compliance as a tool ensuring the consistency of individual and corporate interests of the company. Most of the conclusions and positions pre- sented in the book, confirmed by empirical calculations on the example of Russian and international companies.
This study examines the development of the board of directors institution in Russian companies. The purpose of the paper is to determine the stages of the evolution of the board role in Russia and to evaluate the further perspectives of this institution. Therewith we detect the stages according to the change of the board of directors role in Russian companies. Moreover we demonstrate the system of factors (institutional, legal, human, economic, factors of corporate sector) that influences the transformation of the board’s role. Studies of specialists in the field of corporate governance and the updating of the corporate law form the informational base of the paper.
The paper explores theoretical approaches to the company IPO underpricing and analyzes capital structure impact on the underpricing of the Russian issuers.
This paper aims at explaining the differences in valuation of banking firms in Russia through the impact of selected elements of corporate governance. We rely upon value-based management theory to test the hypothesis that expenses on corporate governance system create shareholder value. The price at which share stakes are acquired by strategic foreign investors is for us a criterion of market-proven value, so we use the standard valuation tool, i.e. price-to-book-value of equity (P/BV) multiple, as the dependent variable. The set of corporate governance parameters whose materiality for a would-be external investor we would like to test includes: the degree of concentration of ownership and control; maturity of corporate governing bodies; degree of Board independence; qualification of external auditors; stability of governing bodies (Management Board and Board of Directors); and availability of external credit ratings from the world’s leading rating agencies. We test our approach on a sample of acquisition deals and public offerings over the period 2004-2008 that we develop for the first time. Firstly, we find out which factors are statistically significant and relevant to a bank’s selling price. Secondly, a least squares multiple linear regression model is devised to check how each individual variable impacts the dependent variable. We discover that external investors attach value to high concentration of ownership, external credit rating coverage, stability of the Board of Directors, and involvement of well-established external auditors. Investors of a strategic nature tend to pay a higher acquisition premium. Independence of the Board of Directors might be perceived by external strategic investors as a disadvantage and might destroy shareholder value.
The present article aims to analyze the degree of diffusion of modern international business ethics practices in Russian enterprises.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.