Зарубежный опыт построения организационно-финансовых механизмов оказания медицинской помощи
Background Accession of 10 Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries to the EU resulted in the largest migratory influx in peacetime British history. No information exists on the sexual behaviour of CEE migrants within the UK. The aim of this study was to assess the sexual lifestyles and health service needs of these communities.
Methods A survey, delivered electronically and available in 12 languages, of migrants from the 10 CEE accession countries recruited from community venues in London following extensive social mapping and via the Internet. Reported behaviours were compared with those from national probability survey data.
Results 2648 CEE migrants completed the survey. Male CEE migrants reported higher rates of partner acquisition (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3 to 2.1) and paying for sex (aOR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.5 to 4.0), and both male and female CEE migrants reported more injecting drug use (men: aOR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.9; women: aOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.1 to 8.1), than the general population; however, CEE migrants were more likely to report more consistent condom use and lower reported diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Just over 1% of respondents reported being HIV positive. Most men and a third of women were not registered for primary care in the UK.
Discussion CEE migrants to London report high rates of behaviours associated with increased risk of HIV/STI acquisition and transmission. These results should inform service planning, identify where STI and HIV interventions should be targeted, and provide baseline data to help evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions.
The significance of medical care and treatment in social security law is analysed.
This new edition updates and broadens the umbrella of environmental health, especially on the nexus of social and environmental health. There is ongoing revolution in governance, policies and intervention strategies aimed at evolving changes in health disparities, disease burden, trans-boundary transport or health hazards. This new edition reflects these realities, mapping new directions in the field. The underlying view is that while environmental health must deal with threats and how to minimize them, it has also created a wonderful framework for developing new scientific paradigms to address emerging local, national and global environmental concerns.
A recent article in the Lancet, by David Stuckler, Larry King and Martin McKee,
investigated anew the fluctuations in adult male mortality rates that have come to
characterise the so-called post-communist mortality crisis. Adopting a cross-country,
time-series perspective the authors examined how the economic policy strategies of the
1990s impacted upon observed fluctuations in mortality. They conclude that the adoption
of a strategy of rapid (mass) privatisation contributed to the adverse mortality trends. We
subject that finding to closer scrutiny using the same data from which the Stuckler et al
claim stems. We find that their claim that mass privatisation adversely affected male
mortality trends in the post-Communist world does not stand up to closer examination. It
is not supported empirically and is at odds with what we know about both transition in
the post-communist world and about health trends over time in this region.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.