Зарубежный опыт построения организационно-финансовых механизмов оказания медицинской помощи
Background Accession of 10 Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries to the EU resulted in the largest migratory influx in peacetime British history. No information exists on the sexual behaviour of CEE migrants within the UK. The aim of this study was to assess the sexual lifestyles and health service needs of these communities.
Methods A survey, delivered electronically and available in 12 languages, of migrants from the 10 CEE accession countries recruited from community venues in London following extensive social mapping and via the Internet. Reported behaviours were compared with those from national probability survey data.
Results 2648 CEE migrants completed the survey. Male CEE migrants reported higher rates of partner acquisition (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3 to 2.1) and paying for sex (aOR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.5 to 4.0), and both male and female CEE migrants reported more injecting drug use (men: aOR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.9; women: aOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.1 to 8.1), than the general population; however, CEE migrants were more likely to report more consistent condom use and lower reported diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Just over 1% of respondents reported being HIV positive. Most men and a third of women were not registered for primary care in the UK.
Discussion CEE migrants to London report high rates of behaviours associated with increased risk of HIV/STI acquisition and transmission. These results should inform service planning, identify where STI and HIV interventions should be targeted, and provide baseline data to help evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions.
The significance of medical care and treatment in social security law is analysed.
This new edition updates and broadens the umbrella of environmental health, especially on the nexus of social and environmental health. There is ongoing revolution in governance, policies and intervention strategies aimed at evolving changes in health disparities, disease burden, trans-boundary transport or health hazards. This new edition reflects these realities, mapping new directions in the field. The underlying view is that while environmental health must deal with threats and how to minimize them, it has also created a wonderful framework for developing new scientific paradigms to address emerging local, national and global environmental concerns.
A recent article in the Lancet, by David Stuckler, Larry King and Martin McKee,
investigated anew the fluctuations in adult male mortality rates that have come to
characterise the so-called post-communist mortality crisis. Adopting a cross-country,
time-series perspective the authors examined how the economic policy strategies of the
1990s impacted upon observed fluctuations in mortality. They conclude that the adoption
of a strategy of rapid (mass) privatisation contributed to the adverse mortality trends. We
subject that finding to closer scrutiny using the same data from which the Stuckler et al
claim stems. We find that their claim that mass privatisation adversely affected male
mortality trends in the post-Communist world does not stand up to closer examination. It
is not supported empirically and is at odds with what we know about both transition in
the post-communist world and about health trends over time in this region.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.