Телесное зрение и созерцание в гносеологическом контексте: сравнение «Бесед на псалмы» Оригена и свт. Василия Великого
The article considers on an example to what extent the "Homilies on the Psalms" of saint Basil of Caesarea fit into the exegetical tradition presented in Origen's "Homilies on the Psalms" discovered in 2012 as part of the Codex Monacensis Graecus 314. The comparison of these collections of sermons is structured by studying how both authors use visual vocabulary in an epistemological context, including the concept of "contemplation" (θεωρία), which goes back to the ancient philosophical tradition. Thus, this study related to the field of patristic philosophy shows a similar use by both authors of the idea of intellectual contemplation as the highest stage on the path of cognition in the epistemological conceptions of both authors. Despite the fact that the collections of homilies that have come down to us have been preserved with a different composition of homilies, our study allows us, avoiding broad generalizations that attribute any allegorical interpretation to the Origenian tradition, to show similar patterns that bring together the exegesis of Origen and saint Basil. However, the study through a systematization of epistemological ideas expressed in texts of similar themes and genres makes it possible to chart the way to understanding the teachings authors expressed not in theological treatises, but in front of a wide audience gathered at the liturgy. Finally, the study is not limited to understanding how the knowledge of the spiritual reality is described, but shows its relationship with the study of creation, which is equally valuable for both Origen and St. Basil.