Государственная система сельских общин-традиционная командная экономика в национальном масштабе
The textbook chapter deals with the public system of rural agricultural communities. Description the Asian way of production; characteristics of the institute of supreme public ownership on land; definition of the special features of the economic self-awareness of
Ancient and Medieval East peoples; analysis of the eastern despotism phenomenon in time aspect are given. Methodical and training materials are attached.
Institutional approach to the analysis of the development of Russian medieval civilization is impossible without recourse to the theory of "Asiatic mode of production." In terms of this approach, the Russian civilization is a "double periphery" - while the periphery of the Western way of development based on private property, and the Eastern way of development based on the power of ownership. Mobilization and communal environment of Russian civilization and the strong influence of the Oriental Institute have created the preconditions for the development of the dominant institutions of "Asiatic mode of production", but retains the possibility for the development of feudal institutions. Over the XIII-XVII centuries. was an active confrontation between the four models of the Russian state - Moscow, Lithuania, Novgorod and Cossack. The final victory of the Moscow model based on the dominance of the "Asian" institutions, has been subject to a number of both objective and subjective circumstances. Institutional competition of different patterns of development of Russian civilization continues to this day - for example, in the form of competitive models of develop-ment of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.