In accordance with the decrease in a social status, health declines dramatically — firm social inequalities are formed in a society. The article is devoted to a crucial issue in modern studies of inequalities in health. We check the hypothesis according to which a human-being’s health state depends on their parents’ status. Moreover, their own achieved position in a society can impact a health state as well. Different combitnations of individual and parents’ statuses, demonstrating upward or downward mobility or stability, can influence our health in different ways. It also contributes to strengthening or overcoming the inequalities. The analysis of status interactions in their influence on the health of the participants of European Social Study (ESS 2012, 29 countries, representative national survey) was conducted by statistic methods of two-level linear modeling. The results demonstrate that parents’ high level of education as well as respondent’s one leads to a higher estimation of their own health. The increase in educational status leads to a better health condition of people coming from various social stratums. However, this dependence can be observed better in those cases where people are brought up in secured families. In some degree parents’ high social status can resist negative effects of downward mobility on health
The results of empirical study of correlation of socio-cultural and personal characteristics with the attitudes to their own health among Russian (n - 103) and Chinese (n = 182) students are presented. There were cross-cultural differences: Chinese students have higher indices of social capital and long-term orientation while Russian students show autonomous motivation of behavior with respect to their health. Women's attitudes to their health in both samples were more positive then men's ones. Such indices of social capital as the level and radius of trust, significance of ethnic and civic identity are mated with positive attitudes towards health in both samples. Autonomous motivation of behavior is correlated with positive attitudes to health in Russian sample.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.