Психологическая практика как предмет фундаментальной психологии (комментарии к статье А.Л. Журавлева и Д.В. Ушакова "Фундаментальная психология и практика: проблемы и тенденции взаимодействия")
Based on the background analysis of modern anthropology the article characterizes prominent Russian scholar, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Education Nikita Glebovich Alekseev (1932-2003) and his innovative contributions to the philosophy, methodology, research on research, ergonomics, psychology, pedagogy, as well as such areas of social practices as organization of science and management, engineering and education, sports and management. In this regard, we analyze the development of humanitarian knowledge in the Russian science of the second half of the twentieth century; particularly the specification of evolution of the psychology of creativity and G.P. Schedrovitsky Moscow Methodological Circle shall be regarded. Alekseev was an active participant in the development of the methodology of system and pragmatist approach in this school. His significant contribution to the development of methodological culture of psychologists, ergonomists, teachers by organizing (with Ya.A. Ponomarev and I.N. Semenov) all-Russian section "Psychology of Creativity" of the Society of Psychologists of the USSR and the "Scientific Council on the educational philosophy of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Education" shall be discussed as well. The article describes the initiative role of N.G. Alekseev in creation and management of the Ostankino scientific school on the methodology of ergonomics and human engineering and scientific school of pedagogical design of educational system.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.