III Международная научная конференция «Рациональность, поведение и эксперименты»
The paper provides an in-depth analysis of a parliamentary procedure of making decisions concerning the budget funds distribution. The author was the first who gave legal interpretation of the classical economic Ar-row’s impossibility theory. Applying these ideas to analyze budget distribution procedure, the author proves that the Parliament cannot make effective decisions concerning the distribution of budget funds. Thus, the exclusive power of the Parliament to approve the budget is brought into question.
The article is devoted to interaction of economics and ethics in historical and modern aspects. Historically the liberation of economics from moral categories is considered in three ways: as a search of "natural" lawes in 1) functioning of means, 2) description of economic environment and 3) behavior. On the other hand, ethical significance of such economic notions as choice, purposes, welfare is revealed. Finally, some attempts of modern economists and methodologists to extend the concept of economic rationality in ethical perspective are discussed.
Twelve sets, proposed as social choice solution concepts, are compared: the core, five versions of the uncovered set, two versions of the minimal weakly stable sets, the uncaptured set, the untrapped set, the minimal undominated set (strong top cycle) and the minimal dominant set (weak top cycle). The main results presented are the following. 1) A criterion to determine whether an alternative belongs to a minimal weakly stable set is found. It establishes the logical connection between minimal weakly stable sets and covering relation. 2) In tournaments and in general case it is determined for all twelve sets, whether each two of them are related by inclusion or not. 3) In tournaments the concept of stability is employed to generalize the notions of weakly stable and uncovered sets. New concepts of k-stable alternatives and k-stable sets are introduced and their properties and mutual relations are explored. 4) A concept of the minimal dominant set is generalized. It helps to establish that in general case all dominant sets are ordered by strict inclusion. In tournaments the hierarchies of the classes of k-stable alternatives and k-stable sets combined with the system of dominant sets constitute tournament’s structure (“microstructure” and “macrostructure” respectively). This internal structure may be treated as a system of reference, which is based on difference in degrees of stability. An algorithm for calculating the minimal dominant sets and the classes of k-stable alternatives is also given.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.