The book containts articles written by European scholars about the place of socio-economic rights in the modern democracies. The introduction is written by Wiktor Osiatynski, who analyses the confusing concepts of socio-economic rights.
In this article the author examines the problems connected with definition of nature of constitutional interpretation. On the base of the cases from the judicial practice, Michel Troper shows that specificity of constitutional interpretation does not reside in particular character of constitution which is the object of interpretation. According to this French theorist who is leader of the school of French legal realism, the particular trait of constitutional interpretation is due to the fact that this kind of interpretation results in constructing a hierarchy of normative acts in a given legal order. Even if such a hierarchy is described in a constitution, it will nevertheless remain hypothetical and subject to changes through an act of constitutional interpretation. Michel Troper insists that a meaning of a legal text cannot be defined prior to interpretation; therefore this legal text will not have any definitive content before being interpreted. The French theorist concludes that a legal norm is not created by the way of legislation — it is created through authentic interpretation of the legislative acts. As authentic interpretation the author holds such construction of a legal text which brings any legally relevant consequences having binding force in this given legal order, there consequences being immune to overruling by any higher instance. Such interpretation can be exercised both by judicial and non-jurisdictional bodies.
The overarching goal of this chapter is to examine the nature of the Russian psychological school of law from the perspective of the international realist movement. This will allow us to define its most common characteristics, its original ideas and general influence on the development of legal philosophy. Discussing the crisis of legal thought at the beginning of the 20th century, the author shows the impact of Russian legal philosophy on overcoming this impasse. Furthermore, the author emphasizes the role of the psychological approach in the formation of the realist paradigm and its influence on the development of critical theory in early Soviet law as well as its general influence on the legal sociology of the 20th century.
This paper considers the ways in which Leon Petrażycki and Eugen Ehrlich employed the psychological notion of emotions in defining the law. Both scholars defined the law by referring to special kinds of emotions: bilateral emotions in Petrażycki’s conception and repulsive emotions of experiencing the wrong behavior of other people, according to Ehrlich’s legal sociology. On the basis of a comparison between the theories of Petrażycki and Ehrlich, the author asserts that both theories hinge on similar methodologies and philosophies. This approach has evident affinities with the conception of law developed by Axel Hägerström and other Scandinavian realists. This analysis suggests a parallel in the development of the realist, sociological and psychological approaches to the law in the first decades of the twentieth century, uncovering certain trends in legal scholarship that underpinned this development.
This paper deals with the neorealist theory of interpretation elaborated by the French legal scholar, Michel Troper. The basic theses and problems of this theory, as well as the debates about it are elucidated in the present article. In author’s opinion, an analysis of the neorealist theory allows unveiling many interesting aspects that are important for philosophical assessment of the problem of legal propositions.
The present paper is a review of Everyday Law in Russia by Professor Hendley. The review underscores that Professor Hendley pays attention not only to the texts of positive law: she also examines how the law works in these countries, how it is utilized by legal actors and how it matters to them. Professor Hendley’s analysis includes a detailed empirical perspective of Russian law, which is always informed by relevant sociological data. Among these data are those collected by Professor Hendley herself during her numerous research visits to Russia. In this regard, her work is clearly distinguishable from the works of those Western scholars who propose educated guesses about Russian law without hardly ever visiting Russian courts and other places where Russian law is ultimately shaped and delivered to its recipients.
Soviet law is often viewed as based on legal positivism, while its ideological background and the practices of political interference are considered in an extralegal (political) dimension. This logic prompts conclusions about the dual character of Soviet law where prerogative and normative dimensions constituted two parallel systems. Similar opinions are sometimes expressed about Russian law, which is a continuator of Soviet law both normatively and factually. The present paper analyzes this approach and suggests that the alleged dualism can be considered in the light of the basic presuppositions and methods of the Soviet (Russian) theory of law and state. This jurisprudence was and still is based on a combination of formalism and anti-formalism (realism) which provided a certain degree of unity and coherence of legal knowledge. After the end of Soviet rule, legal theory in Russia still orients itself to this symbiosis of positivism and realism which underlies legal education and legal scholarship. The paper addresses the philosophical and methodological origins of this Russian (Soviet) legal realism, and argues that the particular character of Russian (Soviet) law can be explained against the backdrop of this theoretical combination that combines conservative social philosophy, a Schmittean conception of exception, methods of legal positivism and the spirit of legal nihilism. These particularities and their methodological background are, in the author’s opinion, among the distinguishing features of Russian law and legal culture.