Перспективы российской модернизации в контексте международных сопоставлений
Using the data of International Social Survey Program of 1996 and 2006 in 15 countries from author analyses population beliefs connected with the role of the State in social and economic life. During these years paternalistic dispositions have decreased in some countries – this trend is particularly pronounced in Poland and Eastern Lands of Germany which populations, according to the data of 1996, were close to the Russians on paternalism. In Russia the majority of population still support intensive interference of the State in economic life, situation in labor market. The greatest level of paternalism is observed in the Russian social periphery: less educated groups, inhabitants of rural and small towns’ communities.
Considering specifi city of modernization processes in Russia, caused both by internal problems and Russias place in global economy, the author brings an attention to the question of features of standard-values system of Russian reformers. Results of the analysis of 12 values-blocks forming a basis of the variety of the standard-valuable systems of Russians are given.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.