Моделирование процессов диффузии инноваций
Strategic documents that reflect future S&T priorities are often formulated without sufficiently taking into account the social context of S&T developments. The paper discusses the capabilities of social sciences for a deeper contextual analysis when setting priorities and, consequently, for helping to make the diffusion of advanced technologies more efficient. The methodological basis of the analysis is the concept of the social construction of technology (SCOT). The list of critical technologies of the Russian Federation serves as an illustrative example of a strategic document defining S&T priorities. The authors point out developments with the highest potential for social embeddedness, which could be fully used only if coupled with an understanding of related social matters. These developments are divided into four groups (clusters): biomedicine and health, energy, environment, and transport. We identify for each cluster the social groups that would be affected by the relevant technologies, the potential for multiple interpretations of a technology and a framework of interaction between members of relevant social groups. The paper proposes prospective areas of sociological research, allowing a deeper understanding of the real context in which new technologies might be developed and implemented, and thus may help optimize efforts for the diffusion of these technologies.
We conclude that many prospective technologies, which by nature belong to the 'physical' world, would be more efficient if their implementation, and possibly also development, were accompanied (and in some cases preceded) by the outputs of relevant social science and humanities studies. In this sense, we propose the use of the 'social embeddedness of technology' concept. We argue that this is an important factor affecting the success of technology implementation, and sometimes, technology configuration
Proceedings of the 21 International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators: Peripheries, frontiers and beyond.
14-16 September 2016
Universitat Politècnica de València
These proceedings represent the work of contributors to the 11th European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship (ECIE 2016), jointly hosted this year by The JAMK University of Applied Science and the Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics in Finland, on the 15‐16 September 2016. The Conference Chair is Minna Tunkkari Eskelinen from JAMK University of Applied Sciences and the Programme Chair Iiris Aaltio from the Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics. ECIE continues to develop and evolve. Now in its 11th year the key aim remains the opportunity for participants to share ideas and meet the people who hold them. The scope of papers will ensure an interesting two days. The subjects covered illustrate the wide range of topics that fall into this important and growing area of research. The opening keynote presentation is given by Henry Etzkovitz on the topic of “Triple Helix Innovation in a Crisis”. A second keynote will be given by Heikki Lyytinen on the topic of “From University Research to Social Innovations”. The third Keynote will be given by Charlotta Johnsson on the topic of “The Berkeley Method of Entrepreneurship ‐ A Game‐Based Teaching Approach”. In addition to the main themes of the conference there are a number of specialist mini tracks on topics including Innovation and strategy, Entrepreneurship education in action, The theory and practice of collaboration in entrepreneurship and Challenges for entrepreneurship and innovation n the 21st Century. With an initial submission of 285 abstracts, after the double blind, peer review process there are 106 Academic research papers, 14 PhD research papers, 5 work‐in‐progress papers published in these Conference Proceedings. These papers represent research from Australia, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Brasil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, India, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Lithuania, Malaysia, Malta, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, The Netherlands, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, UK, USA, Zambia.
This paper is an analysis of the diffusion of innovation. The first section provided an overview of the issues and analyzed the problems of diffusion of innovations, the tools used in the economy of innovation. The second section is devoted to the problems of the diffusion of innovations in the concept of K. Lancaster, in which innovations are considered primarily as changes in quality (attributes) of goods. The final section the model of the optimal control of diffusion processes is proposed and using it by the methods of simulation analysis.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.