The Changing Models of the Russian Third Sector: Import Substitution Phase
This article offers and evaluates a theoretical framework for the appraisal of the third sector’s evolution in Russia. Its history in the preceding 50 years is presented as a successive change of three models—latent growth, import-dependent and rooted—each regarded in four dimensions: developmental driving forces, sector structure, dominant organizational culture and relations with the state. The character and change of models are explained proceeding from the demand supply characteristics of resources and institutions of the sector. Major attention belongs to the rooted model, which is presently taking shape. This versatile and problem-laden process is analysed on the basis of civil society monitoring conducted with the authors’ participation since 2006. This analysis reveals rather intensive import substitution of the resources and institutions of the sector and the emergence of prerequisites for its sustainable development. Their implementation depends, however, on the state of the economic, social and cultural environment and requires elimination of some political obstacles.