The culture of new mobility in Russia Networks and Flows Formation
Despite over 30 years of worldwide reforms in many directions to increase efficiency, public transport markets present a variety of arrangements regarding operations, control and ownership that are amenable to improvement. This workshop will examine the contextual economic, political, cultural and social factors behind these many different cases that can be observed around the world. Through a better understanding of such factors it will examine the competition and ownership options for regulated public transport markets, taking full account of local contextual factors. This will include examination of methods for improving performance without major competition and ownership changes, for example by improved institutional design (both top-down and bottom-up), the development of trusting partnerships, the promotion of negotiated contracts and the introduction of optimal operating rules.
This volume discusses post-socialist urban transport functioning and development in Russia, within the context of the country’s recent transition towards a market economy. Over the past twenty-five years, urban transport in Russia has undergone serious transformations, prompted by the transitioning economy. Yet, the lack of readily available statistical data has led to a gap in the inclusion of Russia in the body of international transport economics research. By including ten chapters of original, cutting-edge research by Russian transport scholars, this book will close that gap. Discussing topics such as the relationship between urban spatial structure and travel behavior in post-soviet cities, road safety, trends and reforms in urban public transport development, transport planning and modelling, and the role of institutions in post-soviet transportation management, this book provides a comprehensive survey of the current state of transportation in Russia. The book concludes with a forecast for future travel development in Russia and makes recommendations for future policy. This book will be of interest to researchers in transportation economics and policy as well as policy makers and those working in the field of urban and transport planning.
Mobile internet provides conditions for the split presence of participants interacting in augmented reality. This is especially true for participants of location-based mobile games that move through the streets of the city and are among other passers-by. Split presence means that presence in the physical environment and presence in the virtual environment can be in varying degrees of coherence. For the game process, it is important to constantly relate who is near and what happens on the screen of the mobile device that actualizes the problem of compliance of accepted rules of propriety. To conceptualize what is considered "proprieties" in situations involving gadgets, we turn to the theoretical resources of Erving Goffman. According to E. Goffman, proprieties mean maintaining the presence among the other participants of a situation that includes two elements: location and involvement in what is happening. The maintenance of proprieties is revealed in the desire of all participants to find a balance between these two elements. However, the possibility of (in)consistency between these two elements rises in location-based mobile games, because of which several protective mechanisms of attention distribution among participants in interaction are involved: 1) constant monitoring of the surrounding, 2) appropriate (not) ignoring passers-by, 3) total exclusion from the interaction of cheaters who substitute their location in the game. Together the three mechanisms ensure the “smoothness” of the game and the resulting public interactions, the boundaries of which now include rules of conduct in both offline- and online-environments. The methodology of the empirical research is based on ten semi-structured interviews with the players of Ingress the Game and Pokémon Go, as well as multiangle shooting of five game episodes. As a result of analysis of the collected video material, we see that users of location-based mobile games do not fall out of interaction with passers-by. They continue monitoring reactions of passers-by to their presence in public places trying to normalize their appearance. In an unhurried game, players spend a lot of effort not to seem completely absorbed by mobile devices. To do this, players switch attention from screens to passers-by, distracting them when they are so close that it allows monitoring of the actions of other participants in the situation. However, the behavior of players is substantially limited by ignoring the reactions of passers-by, which makes the players' position closed to spontaneous interaction. In addition to the fact that players are attentive to the presence of passers-by, they also scrupulously approach dishonest players (cheaters) who substitute the coordinates of their location, which allows them to perform game actions in places where they do not exist. In the case of detection of such cases, "live" players cease to notice the actions of cheaters excluding them from public interaction.
The article analyzes the technological shifts which took place in the second half of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries and on the basis of the opportunities provided by the theory of production revolutions the authors thoroughly study the latest production revolution which is denoted as ‘Cybernetic’. There are given some forecasts about its development in the nearest five decades. It is shown that the development of various self-regulating systems will be the main trend of this revolution and the initial transition to the final phase of the Cybernetic Revolution will start in the field of medicine (in some its innovative branches). Then, a convergence of innovative and cognitive technologies will start and this will form a complex of MBNRIC technologies (that is a complex of medical, biological and nanotechnologies, robotics, information and cognitive technologies, named after the initial letters of the names of these technologies). By the example of the development of future medical technologies which also involve achievements in other innovative technologies, the authors give a detailed analysis of the future breakthroughs in terms of the development of self-regulating systems with their growing ability to select optimal modes of functioning as well as of other characteristics of the Cybernetic Revolution (resources and energy saving, miniaturization, and individualization).
This paper examines the actual problem of urban infrastructure of the city and the reaction of young people to changes in the public transport system in Nizhny Novgorod. During the survey 331 respondents (16-30 years old) were questioned about which types of public transport they use; about the attitude towards changes in the transport system and the system as a whole
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.