Российские города в эпоху депопуляции
This paper looks at the urban development of transition countries in 1991–2010, primarily focusing on the last decade. Cities in transition face a unique set of challenges that came forth due to interplay of the legacy of socialist urban policies and the transition to the market economy. The socialist urban policies restrained growth of the largest cities and distorted the spatial equilibrium towards more uniform distribution of urban population. The transition to the market economy reduces distortions, but the convergence is slow. Housing market rigidities, inadequate urban infrastructure, and inconsistent government policies prevent people from moving to the largest cities.
The chapter proposes a wide overview of social processes in the nineteenth-century world. First of all, with all the exceptions also treated in the chapter, it deals with urbanization, democratization and the formation of capitalist classes and class conscience.
Urban Studies currently apply the concept of creativity to the whole cities but not to the particular sites or practices within. We apply the micro-perspective to discover how the creative practices and actions such as flash mobs, performances, etc. change urban conventions and urban scenarios. Facilitating the physical contacts and communication among urban citizens, these events empower urbanites with communicative skills, decrease the alienation through bodily contacts and emotional reactions. Involving passersby into spontaneous improvisations, these open-ended actions turn them into creators of new urban practices, scenarios, and meanings. So, these actions may be considered as the mechanisms for producing and training social skills. Thus creativity becomes a general urban skill and not the attribute of some particular groups or classes. These ephemeral urban events are prolonged through their medialization (photo, video, internet, etc.). Being medialized, they keep affecting the viewers fostering emotional reactions and becoming the part of urban imagionary.
Urban public space continues to be the focus of debate regarding its conceptualization and how it is designed, (re)produced and managed. Nowadays public spaces are facing new challenges conceptually and practically. This book focuses on two of them: mobility and aestheticization. Mobility and flows are considered to be key characteristics of the post-modern era. While for some scholars it means the «end of place», others are trying to re-conceptualize it by bringing together notions of space, place, mobility and identity. Still surprisingly few authors address the concept of public space in this respect. Principles of aesthetic and diverse forms of aestheticization seem to have affected urban space and culture throughout Modernity, forming a dimension where power and conflict around urban space are performed. In this book nine authors with social science and arts backgrounds from six countries discuss how these processes shape the life of modern cities, and where the social sciences should move for a better understanding of them.
The volume presents papers delivered o the topic of Urban Dimensions of American Civilization.It reflects major themes and methodological approaches-interdisciplinary, comparative, imagological-applied to the national and transnational views of the ethnicity, race and gender identity, and to the multicultural society of the USA as projected in its literary, polemical, art, historical, social and political essays.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.