База знаний по логистике и SCM - стратегический ресурс организации бизнеса: к 10-летию кафедры логистики и Международного центра логистики ГУ-ВШЭ
The Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations can first be considered as an institutional network. However, the correlations in the patterns of relations provide another topology: that of a vector space. Meanings are provided from positions in this latter topology and from the perspective of hindsight. Meanings can be shared, and sharing generates redundancy. Increasing redundancy provides new options and reduces uncertainty; reducing uncertainty improves the innovative climate, and the generation of options (redundancy) is crucial for innovation. The knowledge base provides an engine of the economy by evolving in terms of generating new options. The trade-off between the evolutionary generation of redundancy and the historical variation providing uncertainty can be measured as negative and positive information, respectively. In a number of studies of national systems of innovation (e.g., Sweden, Germany, Spain, China), this TH synergy indicator has been used to analyze regions and sectors in which uncertainty was significantly reduced. The quality of innovation systems can thus be quantified at different geographical scales and in terms of sectors such as high- and medium-tech manufacturing or knowledge-intensive services.
The methodological aspects of the knowledge base of expert system.
Nowadays a lot of various test generation tools are developed and applied to create tests for both software applications and hardware designs. Taking into account the size and complexity of modern projects, there is an urgent need for "smart" tools that would help maximize test coverage and keep the required effort and time to a minimum. Despite the fact that each project is unique in some sense, there is a set of common generation techniques that are applied in a wide range of projects (random tests, combinatorial tests, tests for corner cases, etc). In addition, projects belonging to specific domains tend to share similar test cases or use similar heuristics to generate them. A natural way to improve the quality of testing is to make the most of the experience gained working on different projects or performing testing at different stages of the same project. To achieve this goal, a knowledgebase holding information relevant to test generation would be of a great help. This would facilitate reuse of test cases and generation algorithms and would allow sharing knowledge of "interesting" situations that can occur in a system under test. The paper proposes a concept of a knowledgebase for test generation that can be used in a wide range of test generation tools. At ISPRAS, it is applied in test program generation tools that create test programs for microprocessors. The knowledgebase is designed to store information on widely used test generation techniques and test situations that can occur in a microprocessor design under verification.
he paper presents a framework for fast text analytics developed during the Texterra project. Texterra is a technology for multilingual text mining based on novel text processing methods that exploit knowledge extracted from user-generated content. It delivers a fast scalable solution for text mining without the expensive customization. Depending on use-cases Texterra could be utilized as a library, extendable framework or scalable cloudbased service. This paper describes details of the project, use-cases and results of evaluation for all developed tools. Texterra utilizes Wikipedia as a primary knowledge source to facilitate text mining in arbitrary documents (news, blogs, etc). We mine the graph of Wikipedia’s links to compute semantic relatedness between all concepts described in Wikipedia. As a result, we build a semantic graph with more than 5 million concepts. This graph is exploited to interpret meanings and relationships of terms in text documents. In spite of large size, Wikipedia doesn’t contain information about many domain-specific concepts. In order to increase applicability of the technology we developed several automatic knowledge extraction tools. These tools include systems for knowledge extraction from MediaWiki resources and Linked Data resources, as well as system for knowledge base extension with concepts described in arbitrary text documents using original information extraction techniques. In addition, utilization of information from Wikipedia allows easily extend Texterra for support of new Natural languages. The paper presents evaluation of Texterra applied for different text processing tasks (part-of-speech tagging, word sense disambiguation, keyword extraction and sentiment analysis) for English and Russian.
A new computer architecture named object-attribute is offered in the article. Computer of the architecture have all necessary properties for Artificial Intelligence: abstraction of data and program, height concurrency, isomorphism of data and program (i.e. possibility of painless changing of program and data structures), training and self-training of computer system, dataflow, integration of data and program, generation of object description from simple description to complex description, implementation of distribute computer system.
We investigate conjunctive query inseparability of description logic (DL) knowledge bases (KBs) with respect to a given signature, a fundamental problem for KB versioning, module extraction, forgetting and knowledge exchange. We study the data and combined complexity of deciding KB query inseparability for fragments of Horn-ALCHI, including the DLs underpinning OWL 2 QL and OWL 2 EL. While all of these DLs are P-complete for data complexity, the combined complexity ranges from P to EXPTIME and 2EXPTIME. We also resolve two major open problems for OWL 2 QL by showing that TBox query inseparability and the membership problem for universal UCQ-solutions in knowledge exchange are both EXPTIME-complete for combined complexity.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.