Особенности психоаналитического подхода в исследованиях феномена пищи
Psychoanalytic tradition of study of food as a primary form of communication of a person and the world is represented in the researches of M. Klein, D. Frankl, F. Perls - in their works we can see evolution of the psychoanalytic tradition of study of food experience of a person - from the analysis of the primary food experience in the relationship mother-baby to the idea of mental metabolism, which has structural similarity with food metabolism. F. Perls and D. Frankl articulated the communicative concept of food experience, according to which the identity of a person is formed and his/her existential choice is constructed, too. The main psychoanalytic idea is that food experience is passed through the human positive / negative energy of libido - that is encounter with the world as Others in the primary act of food awakens ones own libidinal energy of an individual and serves as a stimulus to personal development. Psychoanalysis insists that the underlying constructs of interaction with the world are formed in early childhood, are based on the primary food reactions, and are projected to all other forms of its communications. The theory of assimilation and introjection of the authority is the most important discovery of F. Perls. Standards to ensure the quality of physical and mental metabolism are assimilation. At the level of introjection an embedded object maintains without any processing. Normal personal growth always implies a critical attitude toward any objects from the surrounding world, a molar, rather aggressive attitude towards them, and as a result - their assimilation. While introduction of any values in the consciousness of a person occurs when a person forms ability to introjecton and inability to assimilation. Therefore, a totalitarian society has a special food culture - when the level of the body inculcates the habit of introjection of the external object in the form of food, the habit, which is extrapolated to other areas of life, including the sphere of consciousness. Then mental metabolism is also disturbed, and the person is ready to introjection what is suitable for a totalitarian power. Therefore, a totalitarian society cannot be an affluent society - in particular, the culture of food of a totalitarian society must have defective nature and must be accompanied by repressive nutritional practices.