The paper reviews the problem of Russian regions’ inequality and the current system of intergovernmental fiscal relations, which is used as the main smoothing mechanism of the regional disparities. To use only the minimum level of fiscal capacity as the main calculated indicator of the intergovernmental transfers is not effective, because the real differences between the regions should be considered by taking into account socioeconomic variables (income levels, standard of living). Moreover the problem of a large grant amount to the sub-national government must be solved not only at the federal level. The detection of the reasons revealed that an active regional policy is required. There are also suggestions and recommendations to the federal and regional authorities how to improve the system of intergovernmental fiscal relations in the Russian Federation in the article.