Операциональность как инновационная идея в отечественном образовании 20–30-х годов ХХ века
ummary: the article is dedicated to pedagogical teams, one of the historically unique traditions of children social education in Russia. The author considers pedagogical teams as a collective subject of educational activity and as a flexible social and pedagogical entity. Pedagogical teams originated in the second half of the 1960s – the beginning of 1970s. It became a mass social movement in the mid-1980s. The theoretical propositions and conclusions are based on model descriptions of V.Lantsberg and M.Kordonsky's informal associations, Russian dissertations, the practices of pedagogical teams in Kostroma, and a retrospective analysis of the author’s experience as a counselor of the Russian Children's Center "Orlyonok" and the head of pedagogical teams in Kostroma region in a span of twenty years. The article explains the ambiguity of the “pedagogical team” concept and presents four different areas of its existence, shows the variety of its activity and continuity as a social and pedagogical entity. In a metaphorical way the author characterizes the main directions and influence channels of young teacher associations on children and adolescents, particularly at different recreation camps. Presenting the pedagogical team as a living social entity, the author puts forward the hypothesis that relatively complex pedagogical tasks can be solved with very limited resources through the following channels: communication, practices and corporate culture of pedagogical groups. The article may be useful as a historical and pedagogical study helping understand the distinctive features of the Russian pedagogical practice and socio-psychological, socio-cultural mechanisms of education of children and adolescents.
The authors present the approaches to portfolio creation as a strategy for professional development of a student-teacher, his goals, value paradigms and the range of possible structures.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.