Проблемы северного Кавказа и эффективность государственной политики в оценках местного населения
The article raises the problem of studying the borderland in the context of the new local history, the origin of which to postnonclassical model of science causes the task of constructing its object, which is, in particular, the borderland as a zone of intercultural communication. Shown the formation of new approaches of American historiography to the study of contact zones in the context of regional history and approval polycentricity; analyzed the possibility of transferring the principles of the study of the borderlands on the study of different regions with multi-ethnic / multicultural population. Focused attention on research practice study contact areas of the North Caucasus, which revealed the specifics of the local identity, due to the preservation of the social traditions of the highlanders, despite hard cultural assimilation. Specially analyzed the historiographical culture of the North Caucasus region as a result of inoculation of the European research model on the local folk traditions.
The article describes formation and realization of the Japanese state scientific policy as the national program of development of the Japanese society. This process is considered throughout 30 years - 1970 to 2000, with a periodization of stages - decades. The analysis of the given experience has concrete practical value for our country which at all levels of the power has proclaimed the direction on development of a scientific and information society. This process is of main value from the point of view of planning, strategy, and also practice and technologies of realization.
More than 40 languages are spoken in the relatively small territory of highland Daghestan. People living in a traditional Daghestanian village often spoke two to four languages which are either genealogically unrelated or only distantly related. The linguistic repertoire may be different in two neighboring villages. Nowadays, neighboring villages with different L1 most frequently communicate in Russian, but in the recent past local languages were used for this purpose. The aim of this paper is to trace the shifts in the language repertoire that occurred in Daghestan during the 20th century. The paper uses the results of interviews conducted in 13 mountain villages of Daghestan in 2009–2013.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.