Александр Койре, ученик Эмиля Мейерсона: неизменность и историчность человеческого разума
The article analyses the link between the famous French epistemologists Emile Meyerson and his younger friend and disciple, historian of science Alexandre Koyré. Koyré is known primarily by his research of the history of the scientific thought; his main interest was to grasp the moments of the transformation of rational structures within the history. Nevertheless, in this paper I will argue that Alexandre Koyré in some measure accepts Emile Meyerson’s claim on the immutability of human reason that constitutes the central point of Meyerson’s epistemology. But within the rationality in general he distinguishes the immutable core that is constituted by the logical laws of reasoning and the outer level of “mentality” which is subjected to the historical changes and transformations.
In this paper we deal with mathematical modeling of team sport games based on cellular automata (CA). We describe some developments of CA models of football. Presumable learning and optimization problems in team modeling based on CA are discussed. Some general problems are discussed which are related to the accounting of mentality of game participants.
Author shows how and why the method of radical interpretation proposed by D. Davidson can solve the problems that are ormulated in a variety of skeptical scenarios. In particular, the method of radical interpretation renders the Cartesian skeptical scenario (both in its traditional and recent versions) obscure and even deprives it of its status of a philosophical problem as such. Appealing to the diberence between intended and unintended lies, one can see how the global skeptical scenario gets solved in both cases. This paper also extends Willard Van Orman Quine’s argument for an expanded version of a naturalized epistemology by introducing social factors to this approach. In addition, there are always at least two necessary limitations imposed by communication on our hypotheses about knowledge and delusion.
This paper presents principal elements of Bourdieusian epistemological project and focuses on the idea of objectivation. Review of key features of Bourdieus reflexive sociology is followed by discussion of main criticisms aimed at Bourdieus epistemology. The paper argues that Bourdieus critics fail to do justice to his efforts because they tend to believe that operation of reflexive objectivation is meant to bring about a specific version of objectivity, which is called here panoptical objectivity. By tracing Bourdieus epistemological views back to early writings of his teacher Gaston Bachelard, this paper demonstrates that the main purpose of reflexive sociology is to provide tools for breaking with doxa and producing the cognizing subject. Bourdieus methodological prescription of participant objectivation should be interpreted within this epistemological framework.
The present catalogue contains abstracts for some 150 volumes, among which books, periodicals, miscellanies, published by the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the principal institute in Russia for academic research in all kinds of philosophical knowledge. These works, written by eminent Russian scholars, cover such fi elds as the history of Russian, Western and Oriental philosophy, ethics and aesthetics, synergetics and epistemology, social and political philosophy and concentrate on problems that have attained particular importance in the age of globalization and growth of national self-consciousness.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.