Мозговое обеспечение принятия решений о пожертвованиях из альтруистических и эгоистических побуждений
Prosocial behavior is a complex process of social interaction, the brain support of which has not been fully studied. There are two main groups of factors that encourage people to give their resources for the benefit of others – altruistic and egoistic. Regardless of the motives of donations, the ventral medial prefrontal cortex is activated during the donation decision. In addition, the temporoparietal junction provides both positive reinforcement of donation and empathic concern, which reflects the importance of theory of mind in charitable behavior. In addition, in cases of egoistic motives of charity, there is also activation of the brain areas associated with pleasure and positive emotions (nucleus accumbens and ventral striatum). On the other hand, the donor can empathize with the beneficiary, that is, have altruistic motives, which are associated with the involvement of the anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex and popliteal anterior cingulate cortex. This review highlights the neurobiological mechanisms associated with the donation process based on both altruistic and egoistic motives.