Политическое измерение бюджетного процесса: теория инкрементализма
Incrementalism is a theory of the budgetary process which offers a realistic view at the state budgeting by taking into account the influence of political power on budget. This article presents the main provisions of incrementalism and the comments of its critics. The theory is evaluated as a basis for future researches as well.
Upon analyzing the political processes occurring during the nineteenth-twentieth centuries, G.Musikhin posits that the popular idea about the supremacy of professional managers in politics over demagogues speculating with mass’ political aspirations conceals an attempt by the power holders to get rid of the axiological rationale for the political hegemony. He concludes that when the governmental policy is supported by the voters’ will rather than sovereign power per se, the ideological discourse becomes of fundamental importance since support is lent to someone who can present his ideological position as a majority’s goal. The debate within the political space is built around an ability to offer to the society a more attractive political (to be more precise, ideological) prospect rather than detailed mechanisms of how to govern society (that are largely universal).
This Handbook introduces scholars and students to the history, philosophy and evidence of global constitutionalism. Contributors provide their insights from law, politics, international relations, philosophy and history, drawing on diverse frameworks and empirical data sets to explore the idea of a global constitutional order. Across them all, however, is a recognition that the international order cannot be understood without an understanding of constitutional theory. In bringing together some of the leading contemporary scholars, this Handbook will define this field of inquiry for the next generation. This is the first Handbook in the emerging interdisciplinary field of global constitutionalism and offers contributions from experts in both law and political science. Through historical, legal, political and ethical analyses it provides unique coverage of distinct perspectives on global constitutionalism. The editors and their authors provide insights into the changing world order by emphasizing the constitutional-like qualities of international affairs, with particular attention paid to law, power and human rights. This unique and innovative Handbook will be the definitive state-of-the-art resource for the pioneers of global constitutionalism, as well as those readers interested in international law, international relations theory, comparative constitutionalism, history, public philosophy, political sociology and political theory alike.
Assessing the nature, factors and alternatives of contemporary social change is a key challenge for contemporary social science requiring methodological approaches fit to interpret the radical transformations of the institutions and the habitat, of the individual’s mentality and modes of behavior. The way development has been perceived exclusively within the capitalist Western-oriented model is being reconsidered, and the principal methodological approaches of qualitative research in the field are being scrutinized. The critical characteristics of contemporary development are clearly manifested in the political sphere: the emergence of new institutions and new actors transform political spaces and reframe the conventional understanding of politics. The authors test the possibilities of achieving a methodological synthesis in studying political change and propose approaches to overcome the “methodological nationalism” which has so far dominated political science. This revision can be achieved, it is argued, by adequately using the understated cognitive potential of identity studies and by introducing into the research framework, alongside institutions and collective actors, the spatial and the individual, personal dimensions of political development. The edited volume presents the results of the research project funded by the Russian Foundation for the Humanities № 12-03-00306a “The methodology of analyzing political and sociocultural development and forecasting social and political change in the modernization context”.
Political scientists and theorists have been writing a lot about modern citizenship as social institute and legal status for over four hundred years. As a result, the concept of citizenship has acquired a complex set of meanings and interpretations. In the article is made an attempt to systematize the concept and the practices of modern concept of citizenship in the context of the history of western world.
In this volume, based on a symposium organized by the Aleksanteri Institute, six scholars representing different fields of social research are presenting their points of view on the "Stalinism phenomenon".
Article gives a description of the principles of budget law: as a whole, and each principle. The role of the common law and constitutional principles was shown. Author coherently defined the principles of establishing budget revenues and expenditures, the budget system's structure and the implementation of the budget process. For the first time in Russian scientific researches it was presented an integrated system of principles, including the principles of budget law, either related or not related to the budget legislation, however, derived from history, international experience, documents of international financial organizations and doctrinal sources.