Политические режимы Средней Азии: конституционные реформы в рамках авторитарной модернизации
Rethinking the standard theory of democratic transition the author shows the uneven character of Central Asian political regimes. He sketches different strategies of political modernization in order to represent the impact of Post-Soviet constitutional reforms regarding such items as separation of powers, parliamentarism, presidential power and the role of political leadership. He discusses the importance of constitutional developments for traditional societies in transition, and concludes that post-communist constitutional development in the region is still far from complete.
This article is about alternative strategies of constitutional transformation in the period of elaboration of the Russian Constitution of 1993. The author analyses historical origins of basic constitutional principles such as parliament democracy, separation of powers and different forms of government and their interpretation during political crisis of the period under consideration.
The author analyzes from general perspectives of the management theory how the concept of separation of powers is implemented in education, and how it can be improved in the future. It is shown in the article that in a period since 2004, when an administrative reform started and the united Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation began its work, and till spring 2012, when the government of the Russian Federation changed, reauthorization from the legislative to the executive branches and from regional to federal authorities took place. Issues and risks of centralization of powers are considered with specific reference to management practices. Also, options for solving the problem of centralization of powers given by different power structures are analyzed, other solutions to this problem are offered.
The book consists of chapters (articles) devoted the South-European constitutionalism of 1812, when two constitutions were adopted (in Spain and Sicily). Napoleon at that time not only won a few countries, but founded new states, gifted constitutions to some new and old states. Adoptions of constitutions in Cadiz and in Palermo in 1812, were events of extraordinary importance. They demonstrated a protest against Napoleonic wars and defense the right of nations to decide their future and way of development.
The article is devoted to the influence of the Spanish Constitution of 1812 to the constitutionalism of the Russian Empire in the first quarter of the XIX. The author demonstrates the attention of different circles of Russian society to the national liberation movement of the Spanish people against France in 1808-1814 and to the Revolution of 1820-1823 in Spain as well as the Spanish events coverage in the Russian press. Effect of inspiring of the Fundamental law of 1812, enacted in Spain also in 1820 is noticed to be an example for the Russians to pursue for their Motherland. Particular attention is given to the constitutional ideas of members of secret societies, the future of the Decembrists, the motion of which is studied in the context of the "military revolution" in Europe. The researcher analyzes the influence of the Spanish constitution of 1812 on P.Pestel, author of "Russkaya Pravda" (project of the Southern secret society) and N. Muraviev who prepared the constitutional project, which we can study in three editions.
This book sheds new light on the continuing debate within political thought as to what constitutes power, and what distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate power. This book concludes by arguing that the Russian experience provides a useful lens through which ideas of power and legitimacy can be re-evaluated and re-interpreted, and through which the idea of “the West” as the ideal model can be questioned.
This article focuses on the American experience of guaranteeing decisional independence of judges. Historically the United States turned to be the pioneer in the area of legislative regulation of the status of judiciary power. With forming the normative base of both functioning of judiciary and the status of judges the following factor (which was repeatedly emphasized by the Founding Fathers) was taken into consideration: actual separation of powers is impossible without independent judiciary, and thus institutional independence of judiciary is impossible without decisional independence of individual judges. The article includes some comments of American judges regarding the essence generating prestige and institutional independence of the American judiciary and the qualities necessary for a good judge. The article also describes the doctrine of judicial activism.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.