Факторная структура русскоязычной версии шкалы общей толерантности к неопределенности Д. Маклейна
Several questionnaires exist for brief estimation of the Big Five personality factors. The majority of the short forms of the Big Five instruments aim to estimate the Big Five factors but not the facets within each factor. Assessing facets can be beneficial because facets may explain external behavior better than factors do. This paper presents a short form of the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) designed to assess both factors and facets, validated on a sample of Russian adolescents (14-18 years old). We created a short version (BFQ – Russian Brief; BFQ-RB), using data from a sample of 1128 adolescents (14-18 years) and then confirmed the factor structure on another subsample of 1087 adolescents. The psychometric properties of the newly created instrument – the BFQ-RB (Russian Brief) – were evaluated via item-level confirmatory factor analysis. We estimated three main models. In the first model, the selected items represented the Big Five factors. In the second model, the selected items represented ten correlated latent factors (facets). The third model was the second-order factor model fitted the data well, suggesting that the BFQ-RB enabled the estimation of both facets and factors. Our final instrument consists of 43 items, with each facet represented by 3-4 items and each second-order factor consisting of two facets, including the Lie scale.
The results of psychometric validation of a model of in-group identification (Leach et al., 2008) in three Russian samples are presented. The theoretical model is hierarchically structured. It includes five components (individual self-stereotyping, in-group homogeneity, in-group solidarity, satisfaction with in-group, and centrality of in-group identity) that form two second order factors (self-definition and self-investment). The samples included members of a social group («students», N = 196), an ethnic group («Russians», N = 146), and a religious group («Orthodox Christians», N = 249). In study 1 different measurement models were compared for each sample using confirmatory factor analysis. The results support the hierarchical model with two second-order factors. The sets of items comprising each of the five in-group identification components have high internal consistency and discriminant validity. Study 2 focused on the validity of the new instrument in the ethnic group subsample using a number of Russian-language ethnic identity measures. The data indicate convergent validity of the new measure, indicating that its five scales tap into cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of identity with an ethnic group. The results of two studies show that the new Russian-language instrument based on the model of in-group identification has convergent and discriminant validity. Limitations of the study and future directions for the development of the instrument are discussed.
Methodological issues abound when conducting cross-cultural research. In this manuscript we discuss three methodological issues present in many cross-cultural communication studies: lack of geographic diversity, reliability, and validity. To explore these issues the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) is assessed. The PRCA-24 serves as an exemplar of a US-designed and -validated measure frequently used outside the US without tests of validity or measurement invariance. In fact, since 1990 less than 10 studies have reported validity results, often citing fit issues. The PRCA-24 was administered to respondents from 11 countries and failed to yield acceptable fit statistics in all samples, showing poor construct validity. Implications for cross-cultural research are discussed, with particular emphasis on recommendations for increased cross-cultural methodological rigor.
The argumentativeness measure has been used in more than a 100 studies since 1982. The measure was developed and validated within a US university/college student sample. Despite its intended use, the measure is regularly used outside of the US and outside of the university/college setting without tests of validity. There is also intense debate as to the dimensionality of the measure, with one camp defending the bi-dimensionality of the measure and another proposing uni-dimensionality. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the utility of the measure outside of its intended population.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.