Типология межгрупповых противопоставлений: опыт логико-семантического анализа
In the article the category of religious identity is considered as a construct that describes, on the one hand, the form of reflections and experiences of reality, on the other - the mechanism of formation of the social group on the basis of religious affiliation. The implicit concept of the believer and the unbeliever is considered as a «bridge» between the two levels of conceptualization of religious identity. An empirical study of Russian students’ implicit concepts allowed to relate the content of notions about the believer/the unbeliever and self and to demonstrate the existence of a correlations between the propensity to believe in the supernatural and the content of implicit concepts of the believer and the unbeliever.
The article deals with the relations of habitants of the village Vershina (Bokhanski district of the Irkutsk Region), founded by Polish migrants in the early 20th century, with their “historical motherland”. It depicts the main trends in perception the Vershina’s settlers as “compatriots” by the representatives of the state and public structures of the Polish Republic.
Based on the data of a WCIOM’s national survey, the article elaborates a syntactic and semantic analytical procedure to reconstruct a repertoire of the questions, which are matched to the fixed respondents’ answers (i. e. which presumably were actually answered), and to diagnose communicative adequacy of the basic question as it was designed for the questionnaire.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.