Государственная система сельских земледельческих общин - традиционная командная экономика в национальном масштабе
The textbook chapter deals with the public system of rural agricultural communities. Description the Asian way of production; characteristics of the institute of supreme public ownership on land; definition of the special features of the economic self-awareness of Ancient and Medieval East peoples; analysis of the eastern despotism phenomenon in time aspect are given. Methodical and training materials are attached.
Institutional approach to the analysis of the development of Russian medieval civilization is impossible without recourse to the theory of "Asiatic mode of production." In terms of this approach, the Russian civilization is a "double periphery" - while the periphery of the Western way of development based on private property, and the Eastern way of development based on the power of ownership. Mobilization and communal environment of Russian civilization and the strong influence of the Oriental Institute have created the preconditions for the development of the dominant institutions of "Asiatic mode of production", but retains the possibility for the development of feudal institutions. Over the XIII-XVII centuries. was an active confrontation between the four models of the Russian state - Moscow, Lithuania, Novgorod and Cossack. The final victory of the Moscow model based on the dominance of the "Asian" institutions, has been subject to a number of both objective and subjective circumstances. Institutional competition of different patterns of development of Russian civilization continues to this day - for example, in the form of competitive models of develop-ment of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.