Способы выражения экскламации в языках мира
The paper enters the controversy between different approaches to East Caucasian relativization. In one analysis, East Caucasian relativization is constrained only by the semantic and pragmatic frame of the situation. However, our analysis of the data shows a divergence between corpus data on relativization that can only be explained in syntactic terms: Udi reflexivization prefers A over P, and Archi relativization prefers P over A. We suggest that Udi the reason of this asymmetry is that Udi morphosyntax might have been strongly influenced by the contacting accusative languages such as Azerbaijani and Armenian.
The study presented in this paper has two aims. First, it establishes pragmasemantic features of exclamations and exclamatives relying on three formulated approaches – a constructional approach, a presupposition approach, and a scalarity approach, and suggests distinguishing proper exclamatives, the syntactic structures of which are conventionally associated with an illocutionary force of expressivity, from improper ones that do not have such an association. Second, involving the data of 45 languages, the paper reveals and describes 5 syntactic strategies of exclamatives, which are as follows: subject-verb inversion, subordinate clauses, noun phrases, anaphoric adverbs and adjectives, and wh-phrases. The latter three are further divided into several sub-strategies.
The paper discusses a kind of relative constructions without dedicated markers of subordination. The author focuses on the problems related to their differentiation from other patterns, the grammatical means that may imply subordination without expressing it directly and touches upon the diachronic issues concerning unmarked relatives.
If anything, Europe’s linguistically most exotic area is the Caucasus. In terms of linguistic density it is the subcontinent’s New Guinea. Languages of Western, Central and Eastern Europe are less typologically diverse – and not much more numerous – than the languages spoken in its southeastern corner. Three “endemic” language families are spoken here, South Caucasian (Kartvelian), Northeast or simply East Caucasian (Nakh-Daghestanian) and Northwest or simply West Caucasian (Abkhaz-Adyghe). The latter two are sometimes considered to form a deep-level North Caucasian family (see Nikolaev and Starostin 1994), but this entity is disputed. An earlier hypothesis of genealogical relations between all endemic families (the assumed Ibero-Caucasian family) has now been largely abandoned (cf. Tuite 2008). The linguistic diversity of the area is further extended by the presence of Turkic and Indo-European languages. We will primarily deal with endemic families, sometimes also with Armenian (for the purposes of this survey, the difference between Eastern and Western Armenian may be neglected), to a lesser extent with Iranian languages which are also spoken outside the Caucasus and minimally with the Turkic languages, as Turkic is dealt with in a separate chapter of the present volume.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.