Человек в мире вещей: проблема присвоения вещной среды
In the Social Science, as different from the history of ideas, the steady preconception of viewing Hobbes as the philosopher who considered human to be a rational and selfish being exists. Such human beings in their natural condition set the war of all against all, but only the strong power can preserve them in the condition of peace. However true Hobbesian views as to the human relationships have almost nothing in common with these trivial suggestion. The article deals with some aspects of Hobbesian anthropology and his doctrine of the virtue. It is argued that the social order is represented by Hobbes as very agile and complex in its structure. At the first glance his philosophy could seem very legible and solely constructivist, designed as the triumph of coherence and implacable logic. At depth - it is not even contradictory, but the terrain of the questions without any answers.
The report reviews the conference «Social anthropology in Russia as a research and university discipline: search for past and future» organized by the state university «Higher school of economics» on September 11-13, 2007 in Pushkin. The purpose of conference was to discuss a wide circle of problems of the position of anthropology in Russia. The program of presentations included three sections: social anthropology as part of a curriculum, social anthropology as a scientific discipline and peculiarities of the academic community.
This paper is devoted to the problem of cultural crisis and those points of view on this problem that were maintained by russian and western philosophers. It was written a lot of books concerning this subject. At the beginning of XX century many philosophers within different philosophical tradition and schools began to reason about the crisis of culture. For some of them it was important to stress religious aspect of crisis: the mankind has lost the belief in God — this is the reason of crisis. For others it was importatt to understand the social aspect of cultural crisis.
Cultural crisis is the crisis of values: human and freedom. In the first half of the XXth century the culture has not found answers for two questions: what is freedom and what is human?
The article is based on the results of qualitative interviews and analysis of documents. The authors consider conditions of the development of social anthropology curricula in Russian universities. They claim that social anthropology programs in Russia in the beginning of 1990s have been established under the conditions of competition of different agents and their ideologies. The study of a discussion on educational standards helps reconstruct institutional dynamics that have led to a crisis of university training program in social anthropology. An analytic perspective of sociology of knowledge has been used to consider such factors of this program development as legacy of intellectual traditions, ideological and bureaucratic control of higher education, conflict of agents interested in monopolization of this field. The types of educational programs have been presented that implement national standard in social anthropology in different Russian universities. The typology is based on the axes universal / local and pure / applied scholarship.
The Encyclopedia of Law and Society is the largest comprehensive and international treatment of the law and society field. With an Advisory Board of 62 members from 20 countries and six continents, the three volumes of this state-of-the-art resource represent interdisciplinary perspectives on law from sociology, criminology, cultural anthropology, political science, social psychology, and economics. By globalizing the Encyclopedia's coverage, American and international law and society will be better understood within its historical and comparative context.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.