Миф, история, техника: размышления Эрнста Юнгера у «стены времени»
The article is concerned with the study of a number of illustrated books of World War I ("the Great War documents") which were edited by the right wing Weimar intellectual Ernst Junger. It is his concept of the Total Mobilization which allows me to demonstrate a genetic connection between photography and cinema as "modern mass-media" and the phaenomenon of a technical war. For Junger a technical war and technology in general are the art and way, in which the figure of The Worker is mobilizing the world and aims for a global dominance. Thus the illustrated books of the Great War appear as documents of a global transformation and indicate a new heroic experience of a modern technical reality comparable with films of Dziga Vertov, Leni Riefenstahl or Fritz Lang.
The article is concerned with the study of the philosophy of technology of Hans Freyer (1887-1969), who was the fi rst representative of the academic sociology in Germany. His program developed in the essay Towards a philosophy of technology (1929) is discussed as the reactionary modernist response to the cultural criticism of the German Lebensphilosophie (L. Klages, G. Simmel, M. Scheler). From the positions of the sociology of culture and political sociology it aims to integrate the modern technology into the organic life of a modern nation. After the World War II H. Freyer has shifted his heroic-realistic position on technics developing the criticism of industrial society and technocratic modernity which has formed the philosophical discussion on technology in 1950s-70s and infl uenced the Ideologiekritik of the later Frankfurt school. H. Freyer's philosophy of technology is examined in the broader politico-ideological context of the conservative revolution.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.