The modernization of Russian society and the transition to a market economy has changed the nature of the problems of social development and employment in different regions of Russia. Regional differences are generated by various factors. Some of these are the result of economic activity, including the free market and free competition. Others are tied in with a series of cultural and ethnic problems, such as some groups being drawn more towards a European culture, while others are drawn to the Asiatic culture. This may help or hinder the regions ability to cope with the modernization of Russia. This is a presentation of the results of a study on work and welfare in Russia, that began in December 1994. The study covers many topics such as poverty, employment or lack of, education, gender, and food consumption, in three areas of Russia: Moscow, St Petersburg and Voronezh.
This article is dedicated to studying the condition and characteristics of Russian youths’ behavior in the labor market during economic crisis. The analysis is based on data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey — Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE). It is revealed that the negative aftermath of the economic crisis, as well as expectations for the further decline of the economic situation, has undermined youths’ confidence in the labor market. They find themselves in an especially vulnerable position when enterprises shut down or in the case of job cuts. Opportunities for finding a job in the field of secondary employment have narrowed out, and there has been an increase in the amount of young people who are willing to work without signing an employment contract, who are ready to accept unfavorable working conditions. There is an acute sensation of incongruity between the demand for qualified workforce and those specialties which young people receive at higher educational facilities and secondary schools. The crisis has not only exacerbated many of the problems which young people face in the labor market, but it also has stimulated growth in the activity of young Russians when it comes to overcoming emerging troubles, not to mention it increased their interest in utilizing irregular means of material provision.
The article is dedicated to the analysis of economically vulnerable categories of youth in OECD and Russia with particular focus on the comparative analysis of various characteristics of NEETs. Labour force participation of young people in the developed countries decreased during 2000-2015 which was associated not only with the cyclical crisis, but also with an increase in the proportion of young people who continue their education. The new statistical indicator – NEET - reflects the ratio of those young people who are not in employment, education or training. Thus, it should identify economically vulnerable groups of young people who experience difficulties with the transition from school to work. The article states that NEET should not be regarded as the only indicator of economic deprivation of young people. The reasons for the drop out from education and employment can be diverse. The category of NEET unites young people with different experience in employment, personal characteristics and life goals. For some of them economic inactivity is a voluntary choice. That is why one should always consider differences in NEET types. However, the majority of NEET group consists of economically vulnerable young people who definitely need support from the state. In OECD countries about 60% of all NEETs got in this state due to some disfunction of the labour market, and the remaining 40% - due to some social or medical reasons. Countries of Southern Europe are characterized by the highest proportion of long-term unemployed and desperate NEETs, reflecting the tough character of youth labour market adjustment to the crisis. The risk of falling into the NEET group as a whole is higher among young women and those who have low levels of education. Effective youth policy is impossible without the consideration of all aspects of youth labour market. This is relevant both to developed and transition economies, including Russia. In Russia the share of NEET youth has been declining over the past twenty years and now is at the level of European mean values. At the same time the structure of NEET youth in Russia is dominated not by the unemployed, i.e. those actively seeking work, but by economically inactive young people who are outside the labour market. One of the most disturbing features of the structure of Russian NEET youth is an increase in the proportion of young graduates with higher education. It points to the difficulties of matching between education and labour market which can come as a result of so-called massovization of higher education.
The paper examines dynamics in demand and supply of skilled labor in the russian economy over the transition period of 1990–2000-s. It shows that despite a huge inflow of workers with tertiary education demand for such workers grew in the russian labor market even faster. This explains why unemployment for workers with high educational attainment remained low; why returns to education continued to be high; why a proportion of college graduates who occupied low-skilled jobs decreased rather than increased. However in the next decades a relationship between demand and supply might radically change so that the russian economy could face with massive oversupply of highly educated workforce.
Studies on job search in Russia regularly raise the problem of separating seekers from non-seekers and forming a sample for empirical analysis of job search. Different researchers provide different solutions to the problem, but there are two main approaches to constructing a sample. The first one is to use data only on registered unemployment, the second approach is to use data from surveys that include questions on whether a respondent is searching for job and is ready to start working after receiving an acceptable offer. This paper provides estimates of an empirical job search model that explains both decision whether to seek a job or not and a probability of a successful search. That decision is unobservable and may not coincide with answers that individuals give during the survey. The model is estimated using data from Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) for the 2000–2014 period. According to obtained estimates, most of the non-employed may be considered as job seekers. The results not only provide a new insight into economic activity of non-employed but also show a possibility to significantly enhance information base for empirical studies on job search.